This paper presents the empirical evaluation of the path-tracking accuracy of a three-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robot that is able to move in any direction while simultaneously changing its orientation. The mobile robot assessed in this paper includes a precise onboard LIDAR for obstacle avoidance, self-location and map creation, path-planning and path-tracking. This mobile robot has been used to develop several assistive services, but the accuracy of its path-tracking system has not been specifically evaluated until now. To this end, this paper describes the kinematics and path-planning procedure implemented in the mobile robot and empirically evaluates the accuracy of its path-tracking system that corrects the trajectory. In this paper, the information gathered by the LIDAR is registered to obtain the ground truth trajectory of the mobile robot in order to estimate the path-tracking accuracy of each experiment conducted. Circular and eight-shaped trajectories were assessed with different translational velocities. In general, the accuracy obtained in circular trajectories is within a short range, but the accuracy obtained in eight-shaped trajectories worsens as the velocity increases. In the case of the mobile robot moving at its nominal translational velocity, 0.3 m/s, the root mean square (RMS) displacement error was 0.032 m for the circular trajectory and 0.039 m for the eight-shaped trajectory; the absolute maximum displacement errors were 0.077 m and 0.088 m, with RMS errors in the angular orientation of 6.27° and 7.76°, respectively. Moreover, the external visual perception generated by these error levels is that the trajectory of the mobile robot is smooth, with a constant velocity and without perceiving trajectory corrections.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited