Wearable Vibration Sensor for Measuring the Wing Flapping of Insects
Department of Systems Science, Osaka University, 1-2 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
Department of System Innovation, Osaka University, 1-2 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan
Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan
Department of Robotics, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2021, 21(2), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21020593
Received: 4 December 2020 / Revised: 5 January 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 15 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Electrode Sensors and Biosensors)
In this study, we fabricated a novel wearable vibration sensor for insects and measured their wing flapping. An analysis of insect wing deformation in relation to changes in the environment plays an important role in understanding the underlying mechanism enabling insects to dynamically interact with their surrounding environment. It is common to use a high-speed camera to measure the wing flapping; however, it is difficult to analyze the feedback mechanism caused by the environmental changes caused by the flapping because this method applies an indirect measurement. Therefore, we propose the fabrication of a novel film sensor that is capable of measuring the changes in the wingbeat frequency of an insect. This novel sensor is composed of flat silver particles admixed with a silicone polymer, which changes the value of the resistor when a bending deformation occurs. As a result of attaching this sensor to the wings of a moth and a dragonfly and measuring the flapping of the wings, we were able to measure the frequency of the flapping with high accuracy. In addition, as a result of simultaneously measuring the relationship between the behavior of a moth during its search for an odor source and its wing flapping, it became clear that the frequency of the flapping changed depending on the frequency of the odor reception. From this result, a wearable film sensor for an insect that can measure the displacement of the body during a particular behavior was fabricated.