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Article

Accurate Reference Gas Mixtures Containing Tritiated Molecules: Their Production and Raman-Based Analysis

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Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), Institute for Astroparticle Physics (IAP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
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Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Campus de Cantoblanco, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elisabetta Comini and Eduard Llobet
Sensors 2021, 21(18), 6170; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186170
Received: 16 July 2021 / Revised: 1 September 2021 / Accepted: 10 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Highly accurate, quantitative analyses of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues—both the stable species, H2, D2, and HD, and the radioactive species, T2, HT, and DT—are of great importance in fields as diverse as deuterium–tritium fusion, neutrino mass measurements using tritium β-decay, or for photonuclear experiments in which hydrogen–deuterium targets are used. In this publication we describe a production, handling, and analysis facility capable of fabricating well-defined gas samples, which may contain any of the stable and radioactive hydrogen isotopologues, with sub-percent accuracy for the relative species concentrations. The production is based on precise manometric gas mixing of H2, D2, and T2. The heteronuclear isotopologues HD, HT, and DT are generated via controlled, in-line catalytic reaction or by β-induced self-equilibration, respectively. The analysis was carried out using an in-line intensity- and wavelength-calibrated Raman spectroscopy system. This allows for continuous monitoring of the composition of the circulating gas during the self-equilibration or catalytic evolution phases. During all procedures, effects, such as exchange reactions with wall materials, were considered with care. Together with measurement statistics, these and other systematic effects were included in the determination of composition uncertainties of the generated reference gas samples. Measurement and calibration accuracy at the level of 1% was achieved. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; tritiated molecules; gas mixing; β-induced self-equilibration; tritiated reference samples Raman spectroscopy; tritiated molecules; gas mixing; β-induced self-equilibration; tritiated reference samples
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MDPI and ACS Style

Niemes, S.; Telle, H.H.; Bornschein, B.; Fasselt, L.; Größle, R.; Priester, F.; Schlösser, M.; Sturm, M.; Welte, S.; Zeller, G. Accurate Reference Gas Mixtures Containing Tritiated Molecules: Their Production and Raman-Based Analysis. Sensors 2021, 21, 6170. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186170

AMA Style

Niemes S, Telle HH, Bornschein B, Fasselt L, Größle R, Priester F, Schlösser M, Sturm M, Welte S, Zeller G. Accurate Reference Gas Mixtures Containing Tritiated Molecules: Their Production and Raman-Based Analysis. Sensors. 2021; 21(18):6170. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186170

Chicago/Turabian Style

Niemes, Simon, Helmut H. Telle, Beate Bornschein, Lucian Fasselt, Robin Größle, Florian Priester, Magnus Schlösser, Michael Sturm, Stefan Welte, and Genrich Zeller. 2021. "Accurate Reference Gas Mixtures Containing Tritiated Molecules: Their Production and Raman-Based Analysis" Sensors 21, no. 18: 6170. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186170

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