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Article

Custom-Technology Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Linear Detector Array for Underwater Depth Imaging

1
Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
2
Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
3
Sonardyne International Ltd., Blackbushe Business Park, Yateley, Hampshire GU46 6GD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angel Diéguez
Sensors 2021, 21(14), 4850; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144850
Received: 3 June 2021 / Revised: 7 July 2021 / Accepted: 8 July 2021 / Published: 16 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single Photon Counting Image Sensor)
We present an optical depth imaging system suitable for highly scattering underwater environments. The system used the time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) technique and the time-of-flight approach to obtain depth profiles. The single-photon detection was provided by a linear array of single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors fabricated in a customized silicon fabrication technology for optimized efficiency, dark count rate, and jitter performance. The bi-static transceiver comprised a pulsed laser diode source with central wavelength 670 nm, a linear array of 16 × 1 Si-SPAD detectors, with a dedicated TCSPC acquisition module. Cylindrical lenses were used to collect the light scattered by the target and image it onto the sensor. These laboratory-based experiments demonstrated single-photon depth imaging at a range of 1.65 m in highly scattering conditions, equivalent up to 8.3 attenuation lengths between the system and the target, using average optical powers of up to 15 mW. The depth and spatial resolution of this sensor were investigated in different scattering conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: single-photon; TCSPC; underwater imaging; SPAD; custom technology; 3D imaging; LIDAR single-photon; TCSPC; underwater imaging; SPAD; custom technology; 3D imaging; LIDAR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maccarone, A.; Acconcia, G.; Steinlehner, U.; Labanca, I.; Newborough, D.; Rech, I.; Buller, G.S. Custom-Technology Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Linear Detector Array for Underwater Depth Imaging. Sensors 2021, 21, 4850. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144850

AMA Style

Maccarone A, Acconcia G, Steinlehner U, Labanca I, Newborough D, Rech I, Buller GS. Custom-Technology Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Linear Detector Array for Underwater Depth Imaging. Sensors. 2021; 21(14):4850. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144850

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maccarone, Aurora, Giulia Acconcia, Ulrich Steinlehner, Ivan Labanca, Darryl Newborough, Ivan Rech, and Gerald S. Buller. 2021. "Custom-Technology Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Linear Detector Array for Underwater Depth Imaging" Sensors 21, no. 14: 4850. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21144850

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