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Article

Li-Pos: A Light Positioning Framework Leveraging OFDM for Visible Light Communication

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Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
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Department of Computing, University of Worcester, Henwick Grove WR26AJ, UK
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Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, The Hongkong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, China
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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Comsat University Lahore, Punjab 54000, Pakistan
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Department Cell Biology and Genetics, Shatou University Medical College, Shantou 515000, China
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EIT, PEO, Toronto, ON M4B 1B3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yousaf Bin Zikria, Imran Ashraf and Sadia Din
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4310; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134310
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 21 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smartphone Sensors for Indoor Positioning)
The design of solid-state lighting is vital, as numerous metrics are involved in their exact positioning, and as it is utilized in various processes, ranging from intelligent buildings to the internet of things (IoT). This work aims to determine the power and delay spread from the light source to the receiver plane. The positions of the light source and receiver were used for power estimation. We focus on analog orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) in visible light communication (VLC) and assess the area under the curve (AUC). The proposed system was designed using modulation techniques (i.e., quadrature amplitude modulation; QAM) for visible light communication (VLC) and pulse-width modulation (PWM) for dimming sources. For the positioning and spreading of brightness, the proof-of-concept was weighted equally over the entire area. Therefore, the receiver plane was analyzed, in order to measure the power of each light-emitting diode (LED) in a given area, using the delayed mean square error (MSE). A framework was applied for the placement of LEDs, using full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) parameters with varying distances. Then, the received power was confirmed. The results show that the AUC using DRMS values for LEDs significantly increased (by 30%) when the number of source LEDs was changed from four to three. These results confirm that our system, associated with the simple linear lateration estimator, can achieve better energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: visible light communication; full-width half maximum; positioning; power and delay spread; optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing visible light communication; full-width half maximum; positioning; power and delay spread; optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, J.; Haider, S.A.; Irshad, M.; Arshad, J.; Noman, S.M.; Murthy, A. Li-Pos: A Light Positioning Framework Leveraging OFDM for Visible Light Communication. Sensors 2021, 21, 4310. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134310

AMA Style

Wu J, Haider SA, Irshad M, Arshad J, Noman SM, Murthy A. Li-Pos: A Light Positioning Framework Leveraging OFDM for Visible Light Communication. Sensors. 2021; 21(13):4310. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134310

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Jianbin, Sami A. Haider, Muhammad Irshad, Jehangir Arshad, Sohail M. Noman, and Aparna Murthy. 2021. "Li-Pos: A Light Positioning Framework Leveraging OFDM for Visible Light Communication" Sensors 21, no. 13: 4310. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134310

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