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Wearable Smart Textiles for Long-Term Electrocardiography Monitoring—A Review

Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium
Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar 6000, Ethiopia
Materials Engineering Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick Boissy
Sensors 2021, 21(12), 4174;
Received: 25 May 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 14 June 2021 / Published: 17 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile Sensors Based on Printed Electronics Technology)
The continuous and long-term measurement and monitoring of physiological signals such as electrocardiography (ECG) are very important for the early detection and treatment of heart disorders at an early stage prior to a serious condition occurring. The increasing demand for the continuous monitoring of the ECG signal needs the rapid development of wearable electronic technology. During wearable ECG monitoring, the electrodes are the main components that affect the signal quality and comfort of the user. This review assesses the application of textile electrodes for ECG monitoring from the fundamentals to the latest developments and prospects for their future fate. The fabrication techniques of textile electrodes and their performance in terms of skin–electrode contact impedance, motion artifacts and signal quality are also reviewed and discussed. Textile electrodes can be fabricated by integrating thin metal fiber during the manufacturing stage of textile products or by coating textiles with conductive materials like metal inks, carbon materials, or conductive polymers. The review also discusses how textile electrodes for ECG function via direct skin contact or via a non-contact capacitive coupling. Finally, the current intensive and promising research towards finding textile-based ECG electrodes with better comfort and signal quality in the fields of textile, material, medical and electrical engineering are presented as a perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry electrode; electrocardiography; smart textiles; textile; textile electrode dry electrode; electrocardiography; smart textiles; textile; textile electrode
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nigusse, A.B.; Mengistie, D.A.; Malengier, B.; Tseghai, G.B.; Langenhove, L.V. Wearable Smart Textiles for Long-Term Electrocardiography Monitoring—A Review. Sensors 2021, 21, 4174.

AMA Style

Nigusse AB, Mengistie DA, Malengier B, Tseghai GB, Langenhove LV. Wearable Smart Textiles for Long-Term Electrocardiography Monitoring—A Review. Sensors. 2021; 21(12):4174.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nigusse, Abreha B., Desalegn A. Mengistie, Benny Malengier, Granch B. Tseghai, and Lieva V. Langenhove. 2021. "Wearable Smart Textiles for Long-Term Electrocardiography Monitoring—A Review" Sensors 21, no. 12: 4174.

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