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Article

Impact of Safety Message Generation Rules on the Awareness of Vulnerable Road Users

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8370451, Chile
2
School of Industrial Engineer, Universidad Santo Tomás, Santiago 8370003, Chile
3
NIC Chile Research Labs, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8370456, Chile
4
Department of Computer Science and Operational Research, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T IJ4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Miguel Sepulcre, Michele Rondinone, Andreas Leich and Meng Lu
Sensors 2021, 21(10), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103375
Received: 17 March 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 3 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative Perception for Intelligent Vehicles)
In the face of cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS) advancements, the inclusion of vulnerable road users (VRU), i.e., pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists, has just recently become a part of the discussion. Including VRU in C-ITS presents new challenges, most notably the trade-off between the increase in VRU safety and the aggravation in channel congestion resulting from VRU-generated messages. However, previous studies mainly focus on network-related metrics without giving much consideration to VRU safety-related metrics. In this context, we evaluated such a trade-off with a study of motion-based message generation rules for VRU transmissions. The rules were analyzed using theoretical and simulation-based evaluations. In addition to studying the message generation rules using channel load metrics, such as channel busy ratio (CBR) and packet delivery ratio (PDR), we introduced a new metric: the VRU Awareness Probability (VAP). VAP uses the exchange of messages from active VRU to measure the probability of VRU detection by nearby vehicles. Results show that fixed message-filtering mechanisms reduce the overall channel load, but they could negatively impact VRU detection. We established the importance of quantifying the VRU awareness and its inclusion in C-ITS analysis because of its direct impact on VRU safety. We also discussed approaches that include VRU context and dynamism to improve the definition of message generation rules. View Full-Text
Keywords: awareness; cooperative ITS; message generation rules; vulnerable road user; vehicle-to-pedestrian communications awareness; cooperative ITS; message generation rules; vulnerable road user; vehicle-to-pedestrian communications
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lara, T.; Yáñez, A.; Céspedes, S.; Hafid, A.S. Impact of Safety Message Generation Rules on the Awareness of Vulnerable Road Users. Sensors 2021, 21, 3375. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103375

AMA Style

Lara T, Yáñez A, Céspedes S, Hafid AS. Impact of Safety Message Generation Rules on the Awareness of Vulnerable Road Users. Sensors. 2021; 21(10):3375. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103375

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lara, Tomás, Alexis Yáñez, Sandra Céspedes, and Abdelhakim S. Hafid 2021. "Impact of Safety Message Generation Rules on the Awareness of Vulnerable Road Users" Sensors 21, no. 10: 3375. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103375

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