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Open AccessArticle

A Novel Analog Front End with Voltage-Dependent Input Impedance and Bandpass Amplification for Capacitive Biopotential Measurements

1
Master’s Program in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo 120-8551, Japan
2
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo 120-8551, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(9), 2476; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20092476
Received: 26 March 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 27 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ECG Sensors)
This paper proposes a novel analogue front end (AFE) that has three features: voltage-dependent input impedance, bandpass amplification, and stray capacitance reduction. With a view to applying the AFE to capacitive biopotential measurements (CBMs), the three features were investigated separately in a schematic and mathematical manner. Capacitive electrocardiogram (cECG) or capacitive electromyogram (cEMG) measurements using the AFE were performed in low-humidity conditions (below 35% relative humidity) for a total of seven human subjects. Performance evaluation of the AFE revealed the following: (1) the proposed AFE in cECG measurement with 1.70-mm thick clothing reduced the baseline recovery time and root mean square voltage of respiratory interference in subjects with healthy-weight body mass index (BMI), and increased R-wave amplitude for overweight-BMI subjects; and (2) the proposed AFE in cEMG measurement of biceps brachii muscle yielded stable electromyographic waveforms without the marked DC component for all subjects and a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the signal-to-noise ratio. These results indicate that the proposed AFE can provide a feasible balance between sensitivity and stability in CBMs, and it could be a versatile replacement for the conventional voltage follower used in CBMs. View Full-Text
Keywords: capacitive biopotential measurement; non-contact measurement; electrocardiogram; electromyogram; analog front end; voltage-dependent resistance capacitive biopotential measurement; non-contact measurement; electrocardiogram; electromyogram; analog front end; voltage-dependent resistance
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Nakamura, H.; Sakajiri, Y.; Ishigami, H.; Ueno, A. A Novel Analog Front End with Voltage-Dependent Input Impedance and Bandpass Amplification for Capacitive Biopotential Measurements. Sensors 2020, 20, 2476.

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