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Article

The Impact of a Novel Immersive Virtual Reality Technology Associated with Serious Games in Parkinson’s Disease Patients on Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Mixed Methods Intervention Study

1
Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, PC 28922 Madrid, Spain
2
Robotics Lab, University Carlos III of Madrid, Leganés, PC 28911 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Research Group of Humanities and Qualitative Research in Health Science of Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Hum&QRinHS), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, PC 28922, Madrid, Spain
4
Rehabilitation Unit, Hospital de Guadarrama, Department of Physical Therapy, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, PC 28223 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(8), 2168; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082168
Received: 19 March 2020 / Revised: 2 April 2020 / Accepted: 8 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Sensing Technology Applied in Parkinson Disease)
Background: Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes impaired motor functions. Virtual reality technology may be recommended to optimize motor learning in a safe environment. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a novel immersive virtual reality technology used for serious games (Oculus Rift 2 plus leap motion controller—OR2-LMC) for upper limb outcomes (muscle strength, coordination, speed of movements, fine and gross dexterity). Another objective was to obtain qualitative data for participants’ experiences related to the intervention. Methods: A mixed methods intervention (embedded) study was used, with a qualitative design after a technology intervention (quantitative design). The intervention and qualitative design followed international guidelines and were integrated into the method and reporting subheadings. Results: Significant improvements were observed in strength (p = 0.028), fine (p = 0.026 to 0.028) and gross coordination dexterity, and speed movements (p = 0.039) in the affected side, with excellent compliance (100%) and a high level of satisfaction (3.66 ± 0.18 points out of the maximum of 4). No adverse side effects were observed. Qualitative findings described patients’ perspectives regarding OR2-LMC treatment, facilitators and barriers for adherence, OR2-LMC applications, and treatment improvements. Conclusions: The intervention showed positive results for the upper limbs, with elements of discordance, expansion, and confirmation between qualitative and quantitative results. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; biomedical technology; biomedical enhancement; neurological rehabilitation; mixed methods research Parkinson’s disease; biomedical technology; biomedical enhancement; neurological rehabilitation; mixed methods research
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-Herrera-Baeza, P.; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R.; Oña-Simbaña, E.D.; Palacios-Ceña, D.; Pérez-Corrales, J.; Cuenca-Zaldivar, J.N.; Gueita-Rodriguez, J.; Balaguer-Bernaldo de Quirós, C.; Jardón-Huete, A.; Cuesta-Gomez, A. The Impact of a Novel Immersive Virtual Reality Technology Associated with Serious Games in Parkinson’s Disease Patients on Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Mixed Methods Intervention Study. Sensors 2020, 20, 2168. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082168

AMA Style

Sánchez-Herrera-Baeza P, Cano-de-la-Cuerda R, Oña-Simbaña ED, Palacios-Ceña D, Pérez-Corrales J, Cuenca-Zaldivar JN, Gueita-Rodriguez J, Balaguer-Bernaldo de Quirós C, Jardón-Huete A, Cuesta-Gomez A. The Impact of a Novel Immersive Virtual Reality Technology Associated with Serious Games in Parkinson’s Disease Patients on Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Mixed Methods Intervention Study. Sensors. 2020; 20(8):2168. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082168

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sánchez-Herrera-Baeza, Patricia, Roberto Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Edwin D. Oña-Simbaña, Domingo Palacios-Ceña, Jorge Pérez-Corrales, Juan N. Cuenca-Zaldivar, Javier Gueita-Rodriguez, Carlos Balaguer-Bernaldo de Quirós, Alberto Jardón-Huete, and Alicia Cuesta-Gomez. 2020. "The Impact of a Novel Immersive Virtual Reality Technology Associated with Serious Games in Parkinson’s Disease Patients on Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Mixed Methods Intervention Study" Sensors 20, no. 8: 2168. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20082168

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