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Seismological Processing of Six Degree-of-Freedom Ground-Motion Data

Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
LMU, 80333 Munich, Germany
Geodätisches Observatorium Wettzell, TUM, 93444 Bad Kötzting, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6904;
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 December 2020 / Published: 3 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotation Rate Sensors and Their Applications)
Recent progress in rotational sensor technology has made it possible to directly measure rotational ground-motion induced by seismic waves. When combined with conventional inertial seismometer recordings, the new sensors allow one to locally observe six degrees of freedom (6DOF) of ground-motion, composed of three orthogonal components of translational motion and three orthogonal components of rotational motion. The applications of such 6DOF measurements are manifold—ranging from wavefield characterization, separation, and reconstruction to the reduction of non-uniqueness in seismic inverse problems—and have the potential to revolutionize the way seismic data are acquired and processed. However, the seismological community has yet to embrace rotational ground-motion as a new observable. The aim of this paper is to give a high-level introduction into the field of 6DOF seismology using illustrative examples and to summarize recent progress made in this relatively young field. It is intended for readers with a general background in seismology. In order to illustrate the seismological value of rotational ground-motion data, we provide the first-ever 6DOF processing example of a teleseismic earthquake recorded on a multicomponent ring laser observatory and demonstrate how wave parameters (phase velocity, propagation direction, and ellipticity angle) and wave types of multiple phases can be automatically estimated using single-station 6DOF processing tools. Python codes to reproduce this processing example are provided in an accompanying Jupyter notebook. View Full-Text
Keywords: seismology; rotation; gyroscope; ring laser; seismic tomography; seismic exploration seismology; rotation; gyroscope; ring laser; seismic tomography; seismic exploration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sollberger, D.; Igel, H.; Schmelzbach, C.; Edme, P.; van Manen, D.-J.; Bernauer, F.; Yuan, S.; Wassermann, J.; Schreiber, U.; Robertsson, J.O.A. Seismological Processing of Six Degree-of-Freedom Ground-Motion Data. Sensors 2020, 20, 6904.

AMA Style

Sollberger D, Igel H, Schmelzbach C, Edme P, van Manen D-J, Bernauer F, Yuan S, Wassermann J, Schreiber U, Robertsson JOA. Seismological Processing of Six Degree-of-Freedom Ground-Motion Data. Sensors. 2020; 20(23):6904.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sollberger, David; Igel, Heiner; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Edme, Pascal; van Manen, Dirk-Jan; Bernauer, Felix; Yuan, Shihao; Wassermann, Joachim; Schreiber, Ulrich; Robertsson, Johan O.A. 2020. "Seismological Processing of Six Degree-of-Freedom Ground-Motion Data" Sensors 20, no. 23: 6904.

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