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Bio- and Biomimetic Receptors for Electrochemical Sensing of Heavy Metal Ions

Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, 30172 Venice, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2020, 20(23), 6800; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236800
Received: 5 November 2020 / Revised: 25 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 28 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Heavy metals ions (HMI), if not properly handled, used and disposed, are a hazard for the ecosystem and pose serious risks for human health. They are counted among the most common environmental pollutants, mainly originating from anthropogenic sources, such as agricultural, industrial and/or domestic effluents, atmospheric emissions, etc. To face this issue, it is necessary not only to determine the origin, distribution and the concentration of HMI but also to rapidly (possibly in real-time) monitor their concentration levels in situ. Therefore, portable, low-cost and high performing analytical tools are urgently needed. Even though in the last decades many analytical tools and methodologies have been designed to this aim, there are still several open challenges. Compared with the traditional analytical techniques, such as atomic absorption/emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and/or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical or UV–VIS detectors, bio- and biomimetic electrochemical sensors provide high sensitivity, selectivity and rapid responses within portable and user-friendly devices. In this review, the advances in HMI sensing in the last five years (2016–2020) are addressed. Key examples of bio and biomimetic electrochemical, impedimetric and electrochemiluminescence-based sensors for Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr6+, Zn2+ and Tl+ are described and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal ions; electrochemical biosensors; bioreceptor; biomimetic heavy metal ions; electrochemical biosensors; bioreceptor; biomimetic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stortini, A.M.; Baldo, M.A.; Moro, G.; Polo, F.; Moretto, L.M. Bio- and Biomimetic Receptors for Electrochemical Sensing of Heavy Metal Ions. Sensors 2020, 20, 6800. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236800

AMA Style

Stortini AM, Baldo MA, Moro G, Polo F, Moretto LM. Bio- and Biomimetic Receptors for Electrochemical Sensing of Heavy Metal Ions. Sensors. 2020; 20(23):6800. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236800

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stortini, Angela M., Maria A. Baldo, Giulia Moro, Federico Polo, and Ligia M. Moretto 2020. "Bio- and Biomimetic Receptors for Electrochemical Sensing of Heavy Metal Ions" Sensors 20, no. 23: 6800. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236800

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