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Letter

Modelling a Spectral Index to Detect Dispersed Oil in a Seawater Column Depending on the Viewing Angle: Gulf of Gdańsk Case Study

1
Department of Physics, Gdynia Maritime University, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
2
Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy, 81-712 Sopot, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5352; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185352
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
This paper analyzes the digital modelling of radiance reflectance of the sea surface when the water column is polluted by oil-in-water emulsion. A method tracking the fate of two billion virtual solar photons was applied to obtain the angular distribution of bottom-up radiance for a plane of sunlight striking the sea surface. For the calculations, the inherent optical properties of seawater characteristic for the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea) were used. The analyses were performed for two types of oils with extremely different optical properties for an oil concentration of 10 ppm and for a roughened sea surface with a wind speed of 2 m/s. The spectral index for oil detection in seawater for different viewing angles was determined based on the results obtained for reflectance at eight wavelengths in the range of 412–676 nm for viewing angle in the range from 80° to 0°, both on the side of incidence of direct sunlight and on the opposite side. The resulting calculated spectral indexes for different wavelength combinations indicated significant dependence on the viewing angle. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil-in-seawater emulsion; oil detection; radiance reflectance; sun glints; spectral index oil-in-seawater emulsion; oil detection; radiance reflectance; sun glints; spectral index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.; Piskozub, J. Modelling a Spectral Index to Detect Dispersed Oil in a Seawater Column Depending on the Viewing Angle: Gulf of Gdańsk Case Study. Sensors 2020, 20, 5352. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185352

AMA Style

Baszanowska E, Otremba Z, Piskozub J. Modelling a Spectral Index to Detect Dispersed Oil in a Seawater Column Depending on the Viewing Angle: Gulf of Gdańsk Case Study. Sensors. 2020; 20(18):5352. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185352

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baszanowska, Emilia, Zbigniew Otremba, and Jacek Piskozub. 2020. "Modelling a Spectral Index to Detect Dispersed Oil in a Seawater Column Depending on the Viewing Angle: Gulf of Gdańsk Case Study" Sensors 20, no. 18: 5352. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185352

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