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Open AccessArticle

Eye Gaze Based 3D Triangulation for Robotic Bionic Eyes

1
School of Mechatronical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2
AIPARK, Zhangjiakou 075000, China
3
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Intelligent Robots and Systems, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
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Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Robots and Systems (Beijing Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100081, China
5
Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
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Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(18), 5271; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185271
Received: 10 August 2020 / Revised: 29 August 2020 / Accepted: 11 September 2020 / Published: 15 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Three-dimensional (3D) triangulation based on active binocular vision has increasing amounts of applications in computer vision and robotics. An active binocular vision system with non-fixed cameras needs to calibrate the stereo extrinsic parameters online to perform 3D triangulation. However, the accuracy of stereo extrinsic parameters and disparity have a significant impact on 3D triangulation precision. We propose a novel eye gaze based 3D triangulation method that does not use stereo extrinsic parameters directly in order to reduce the impact. Instead, we drive both cameras to gaze at a 3D spatial point P at the optical center through visual servoing. Subsequently, we can obtain the 3D coordinates of P through the intersection of the two optical axes of both cameras. We have performed experiments to compare with previous disparity based work, named the integrated two-pose calibration (ITPC) method, using our robotic bionic eyes. The experiments show that our method achieves comparable results with ITPC. View Full-Text
Keywords: active binocular vision; 3D coordinates estimation; eye gaze; 3D triangulation; robotic bionic eyes active binocular vision; 3D coordinates estimation; eye gaze; 3D triangulation; robotic bionic eyes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fan, D.; Liu, Y.; Chen, X.; Meng, F.; Liu, X.; Ullah, Z.; Cheng, W.; Liu, Y.; Huang, Q. Eye Gaze Based 3D Triangulation for Robotic Bionic Eyes. Sensors 2020, 20, 5271. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185271

AMA Style

Fan D, Liu Y, Chen X, Meng F, Liu X, Ullah Z, Cheng W, Liu Y, Huang Q. Eye Gaze Based 3D Triangulation for Robotic Bionic Eyes. Sensors. 2020; 20(18):5271. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185271

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fan, Di; Liu, Yanyang; Chen, Xiaopeng; Meng, Fei; Liu, Xilong; Ullah, Zakir; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Yunhui; Huang, Qiang. 2020. "Eye Gaze Based 3D Triangulation for Robotic Bionic Eyes" Sensors 20, no. 18: 5271. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185271

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