Locating active radars in real environmental conditions is a very important and complex task. The efficiency of the direction finding (DF) of ground-based radars and other microwave emitters using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is dependent on the parameters of applied devices for angle location of microwave emitters, and on the construction and modes of operation of the observed transmitting antenna systems. An additional factor having the influence on DF of the radar, when are used systems installed on the UAV, is the rotation of the antenna of a radar. The accuracy of estimation of direction of any microwave transmitter is determined by the terrain properties that surround the transmitter and the objects reflecting microwave signals. The exemplary shapes of the radar antenna patterns and the associated relationships with the probability of remotely detecting the radar and determining its bearings are described. The simulated patterns of the signals received at an emitter-locating device mounted on a UAV and the expected results of a monopulse DF based on these signals are presented. The novelty of this work is the analysis of the DF efficiency of radars in conditions where intense multi-path phenomena appear, and for various amplitudes and phases of the direct signal and multi-path signals that reach the UAV when assuming that so-called simple signals and linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals are transmitted by the radar. The primary focus is on multi-path phenomenon, which can make it difficult, but not entirely impossible, to detect activity and location of radar with a low-flying small UAV and using only monopulse techniques, that is, when only a single pulse emitted by a radar must be sufficient to DF of this radar. Direction of arrival (DOA) algorithms of signals in dense signal environment were not presented in the work, but relevant suggestions were made for the design of such algorithms.
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