# Data Augmentation of Surface Electromyography for Hand Gesture Recognition

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- the presentation of common (i.e., additive noise, overlapping windows) and novel (i.e., magnitude warping, wavelet decomposition, synthetic sEMG models) data augmentation methods for sEMG signals
- an extensive and systematic evaluation of the aforementioned augmentation methods
- an improvement in classification accuracy of the state-of-the-art model [19].

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Augmentation Tools

- Augmentor.One (AO): applies only one augmentation method randomly selected from the available methods, e.g., if we have two augmentations (${A}_{1},{A}_{2}$), this approach is equal to applying ${A}_{1}$ to half of the data and ${A}_{2}$ to the other half.
- Augmentor.All (AA): applies all the K methods consecutively, i.e., ${x}_{i}^{*}={A}_{K}\left({A}_{K-1}(\dots {A}_{1}\left({x}_{i}\right))\right)$.
- Augmentor.Random (AR): applies each of the K augmentation methods successively with a probability ${p}_{k}$, $k\in [1,K]$: ${x}_{i}^{*}={A}_{K}({p}_{K},{A}_{K-1}({p}_{K-1},\dots {A}_{1}({p}_{1},{x}_{i})))$. An augmentation method ${A}_{k}$ is applied if a random number sampled from a uniform distribution $\mathcal{U}(0,1)$ is greater than the threshold ${p}_{k}$. In these experiments, all threshold probabilities are equal to ${p}_{k}=0.5$.

#### 2.2. CNN Architectures

#### 2.3. Datasets

## 3. Experiments

#### 3.1. Metrics

- the Silhouette Coefficient (SC) [27]:$$\mathit{SC}=\frac{1}{N}\sum _{i=1}^{N}\frac{b\left(i\right)-a\left(i\right)}{max\left\{a\right(i),b(i\left)\right\}}$$
- the Davies–Bouldin (DB) index [28]:$$\mathit{DB}=\frac{1}{K}\sum _{i=1}^{K}ma{x}_{j\ne i}\left(\right)open="("\; close=")">\frac{{\sigma}_{i}+{\sigma}_{j}}{d({c}_{i},{c}_{j})}$$

#### 3.2. Model Optimization

## 4. Results

## 5. Discussion

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

**Figure A1.**Example of smooth curve generation used in the MW method. Random values for $T=6$ equidistant points are sampled from $\mathcal{N}(\mu =1,\sigma =0.2)$ and then interpolated using a cubic spline.

**Figure A2.**Examples of the investigated augmentation methods applied to the RMS of a sEMG signal from Ninapro-DB1. The colors correspond to the different electrode channels.

**Figure A4.**Average test accuracy of AtzoriNet* for each method at different augmentation ratios, R, for the Ninapro-DB1 dataset. The solid line corresponds to $\tau =15$ and the dashed line to $\tau =1$ (see also Figure A3).

**Figure A5.**Average test accuracy of AtzoriNet* for each method at different augmentation ratios, R, for the putEMG dataset. The solid line corresponds to $\tau =15$ and the dashed line to $\tau =1$ (see also Figure A3).

**Figure A6.**Average loss and accuracy graphs (

**left**), augmentation vs. baseline-1 and baseline-2 accuracy per subject (

**middle**), and t-SNE embeddings of a single subject (

**right**) for the different augmentation methods on Ninapro-DB1. The investigated method is shown on the left of the figure. In the left plot, the solid lines correspond to training, while the dashed lines to testing. In the middle plots, color points correspond to different subjects and the ellipse shows the general shape of the points. In the t-SNE visualizations, color points correspond to different gestures, while the values at the title are the SC/DB/accuracy metrics.

**Figure A7.**Average loss and accuracy graphs

**(left)**, augmentation vs. baseline-1 and baseline-2 accuracy per subject (

**middle**), and t-SNE embeddings of a single subject (

**right**) for the different augmentation methods on putEMG. The investigated method is shown on the left of the figure. In the left plot, the solid lines correspond to training, while the dashed lines to testing. In the middle plots, color points correspond to different subjects and the ellipse shows the general shape of the points. In the t-SNE visualizations, color points correspond to different gestures, while the values at the title are the SC/DB/accuracy metrics.

**Figure A8.**f1 scores of the AtzoriNet* for each gesture of Ninapro-DB1 dataset for $\tau =1$ and $R=9$.

Model | AtzoriNet* [22] | WeiNet [19] |
---|---|---|

Details | s = { | |

Conv2D(64, (3,3)) | ||

Conv2D(32, (1,$C)) | Conv2D(64, (3,3)) | |

Conv2D(32, (3,3)) | LC(64, (1,1)) | |

MaxPool(3,3) | LC(64, (1,1)) | |

Conv2D(64, (5,5)) | }× $C | |

MaxPool(3,3) | Concat(s) | |

Conv2D(64, (5,1)) | FC(512) | |

Conv2D($G, (1,1)) | FC(512) | |

Softmax | FC(128) | |

FC($G) | ||

Softmax | ||

Parameters | 84K | 8M |

Model | AtzoriNet* [22] | WeiNet [19] |
---|---|---|

Optimizer | Adam | SGD with momentum |

Learning rate | 0.001 | 0.1 |

Learning rate schedule | constant | divide by 10 after epochs 1624 |

Weight decay | 0.0005 | 0.0001 |

Epochs | 100 (early stopping) | 28 (preceded by pretraining) |

Batch size | 512 | 1024 |

**Table A3.**Datasets details and partition into train, validation and test sets based on gesture repetitions.

Dataset | Sampling (Hz) | sEMG Channels | Subjects | Gestures | Trials | Train | Validation | Test |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Ninapro-DB1 [23] | 100 | 10 | 27 | 52+1 | 10 | 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 | 9, 10 | 2, 5, 7 |

putEMG [25] | 5124 | $3\times 8$ | 44 | 7+1 | 8 | 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 | 8 | 2, 5 |

**Table A4.**Augmentation hyper-parameter selection and search space for each method. The selected values are shown for each dataset.

Method | Hyper-Parameter | Search Space | Selected Value (DB1/putEMG) |
---|---|---|---|

WD | $\psi $ | {coif2, db7, sym4} | sym4/db7 |

l | {4, 5} | 5 | |

b | {0, 2–5} | 3/0 | |

MW | $\sigma $ | {0.1, 0.2, 0.3} | 0.1 |

GN | $\mathit{SNR}$ | {25, 30, 35} | 30/35 |

**Table A5.**Augmentation hyper-parameter selection results. For each method and dataset, higher accuracy is shown in bold.

Method | Hyper-Parameter Value | Accuracy Ninapro-DB1 | Accuracy putEMG |
---|---|---|---|

GN | $\mathit{SNR}=25$ | 0.5862 | 0.8150 |

GN | $\mathit{SNR}=30$ | 0.6007 | 0.8509 |

GN | $\mathit{SNR}=35$ | 0.5994 | 0.8551 |

MW | $\sigma =0.1$ | 0.6342 | 0.8529 |

MW | $\sigma =0.2$ | 0.6123 | 0.8210 |

MW | $\sigma =0.3$ | 0.5904 | 0.7486 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=4,b=0$ | 0.6145 | 0.8377 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=4,b=2$ | 0.6068 | 0.8576 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=4,b=3$ | 0.6074 | 0.8456 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=4,b=4$ | 0.6064 | 0.8629 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=4,b=5$ | 0.5890 | 0.8763 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=5,b=0$ | 0.6112 | 0.8611 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=5,b=2$ | 0.6152 | 0.8664 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=5,b=3$ | 0.6129 | 0.8752 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=5,b=4$ | 0.5985 | 0.8473 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{coif}2,l=5,b=5$ | 0.5764 | 0.8383 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=4,b=0$ | 0.6127 | 0.8454 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=4,b=2$ | 0.6120 | 0.8592 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=4,b=3$ | 0.6068 | 0.8617 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=4,b=4$ | 0.5907 | 0.8669 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=4,b=5$ | 0.5751 | 0.8391 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=5,b=0$ | 0.6168 | 0.8770 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=5,b=2$ | 0.6142 | 0.8429 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=5,b=3$ | 0.6036 | 0.8714 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=5,b=4$ | 0.5858 | 0.8635 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{db}7,l=5,b=5$ | 0.5634 | 0.8213 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=4,b=0$ | 0.6146 | 0.8567 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=4,b=2$ | 0.6149 | 0.8640 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=4,b=3$ | 0.6129 | 0.8446 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=4,b=4$ | 0.6072 | 0.8757 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=4,b=5$ | 0.6008 | 0.8632 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=5,b=0$ | 0.6162 | 0.8579 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=5,b=2$ | 0.6122 | 0.8759 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=5,b=3$ | 0.6240 | 0.8372 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=5,b=4$ | 0.6004 | 0.8521 |

WD | $\psi =\mathrm{sym}4,l=5,b=5$ | 0.5846 | 0.8590 |

**Table A6.**Average accuracy of AtzoriNet* for each method at different augmentation ratios, R, for the Ninapro-DB1 dataset. The value in bold corresponds to the method with highest accuracy.

R | SS1 | SS2 | WD | MW | GN | WD+MW | AA | AO | AR |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 0.6937 | 0.7262 | 0.7308 | 0.7337 | 0.7306 | 0.7354 | 0.7284 | 0.7312 | 0.7322 |

4 | 0.6332 | 0.7166 | 0.7405 | 0.7436 | 0.7251 | 0.7389 | 0.7391 | 0.7377 | 0.7399 |

9 | 0.5786 | 0.7152 | 0.7345 | 0.7443 | 0.7331 | 0.7399 | 0.7256 | 0.7405 | 0.7383 |

SW(15) (baseline-1): 0.6305, SW(01) (baseline-2): 0.7273 |

**Table A7.**Average accuracy of AtzoriNet* for each method at different augmentation ratios, R, for the putEMG dataset. The value in bold corresponds to the method with highest accuracy.

R | SS1 | SS2 | WD | MW | GN | WD+MW | AA | AO | AR |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 0.9442 | 0.9498 | 0.9474 | 0.9477 | 0.9496 | 0.9506 | 0.9423 | 0.9453 | 0.9507 |

4 | 0.9500 | 0.9622 | 0.9660 | 0.9580 | 0.9569 | 0.9571 | 0.9489 | 0.9621 | 0.9616 |

9 | 0.9471 | 0.9584 | 0.9586 | 0.9605 | 0.9616 | 0.9612 | 0.9498 | 0.9696 | 0.9660 |

15 | 0.9406 | 0.9613 | 0.9602 | 0.9650 | 0.9654 | 0.9606 | 0.9482 | 0.9697 | 0.9672 |

**Table A8.**Average and standard deviation across subjects of the cluster metrics Silhouette Coefficient (SC), Davies–Bouldin (DB) and classification accuracy (row of $R=9$ in Table A6) for the Ninapro-DB1 dataset.

Method | SC | DB | Accuracy |
---|---|---|---|

SW(15) (baseline-1) | 0.2089 ± 0.0498 | 1.67 ± 0.21 | 0.6305 ± 0.0608 |

SW(01) (baseline-2) | 0.2783 ± 0.0461 | 1.45 ± 0.17 | 0.7273 ± 0.0581 |

SS1(01) | 0.1535 ± 0.0395 | 1.90 ± 0.22 | 0.5786 ± 0.0594 |

SS2(01) | 0.2980 ± 0.0486 | 1.36 ± 0.16 | 0.7152 ± 0.0564 |

WD(01) | 0.2627 ± 0.0468 | 1.47 ± 0.18 | 0.7345 ± 0.0591 |

MW(01) | 0.2768 ± 0.0459 | 1.42 ± 0.16 | 0.7443 ± 0.0558 |

GN(01) | 0.2814 ± 0.0492 | 1.42 ± 0.18 | 0.7331 ± 0.0618 |

WD+MW(01) | 0.2686 ± 0.0428 | 1.44 ± 0.15 | 0.7399 ± 0.0594 |

AA(01) | 0.2600 ± 0.0430 | 1.47 ± 0.15 | 0.7256 ± 0.0587 |

AO(01) | 0.2838 ± 0.0465 | 1.40 ± 0.17 | 0.7405 ± 0.0588 |

AR(01) | 0.2842 ± 0.0468 | 1.41 ± 0.17 | 0.7383 ± 0.0591 |

**Table A9.**Average and standard deviation across subjects of the cluster metrics Silhouette Coefficient (SC), Davies–Bouldin (DB) and classification accuracy (row of $R=15$ in Table A7) for the putEMG dataset.

Method | SC | DB | Accuracy |
---|---|---|---|

SW(15) (baseline-1) | 0.3349 ± 0.0732 | 1.58 ± 0.55 | 0.8071 ± 0.0933 |

SW(01) (baseline-2) | 0.4998 ± 0.0648 | 0.94 ± 0.22 | 0.9388 ± 0.0602 |

SS1(01) | 0.4287 ± 0.0903 | 1.11 ± 0.40 | 0.9406 ± 0.0480 |

SS2(01) | 0.5295 ± 0.0685 | 0.78 ± 0.16 | 0.9613 ± 0.0375 |

WD(01) | 0.5292 ± 0.0654 | 0.79 ± 0.16 | 0.9602 ± 0.0448 |

MW(01) | 0.4773 ± 0.0743 | 0.91 ± 0.22 | 0.9650 ± 0.0356 |

GN(01) | 0.5289 ± 0.0734 | 0.80 ± 0.19 | 0.9654 ± 0.0433 |

WD+MW(01) | 0.4827 ± 0.0783 | 0.90 ± 0.21 | 0.9606 ± 0.0464 |

AA(01) | 0.4728 ± 0.0755 | 0.94 ± 0.23 | 0.9482 ± 0.0528 |

AO(01) | 0.5261 ± 0.0683 | 0.80 ± 0.18 | 0.9697 ± 0.0299 |

AR(01) | 0.5394 ± 0.0603 | 0.77 ± 0.15 | 0.9672 ± 0.0384 |

**Table A10.**Pairwise comparisons with Bonferonni correction for the Ninapro-DB1 dataset. The table shows the p-value of the comparison between the classification accuracy of the methods on the corresponding row and column. Values above the diagonal show the comparisons for $R=9$ and below the diagonal for $R=1$ (last and first row of Table A6, respectively). Values in bold correspond to the comparisons of the method with the highest classification accuracy in Table A6 (i.e., MW). An ‘*’ denotes a significant difference ($\alpha =0.05$), while a ‘**’ denotes a p-value $p<0.001$.

SW(15) | SW(01) | SS1(01) | SS2(01) | WD(01) | MW(01) | GN(01) | WD+MW(01) | AA(01) | AO(01) | AR(01) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SW(15) | — | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** |

SW(01) | ** | — | ** | 0.009 * | 0.590 | ** | 1.0 | 0.019 * | 1.0 | 0.004 * | 0.004 * |

SS1(01) | ** | ** | — | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** |

SS2(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | — | ** | ** | ** | ** | 0.029* | ** | ** |

WD(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | 1.0 | — | 0.007 * | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.209 | 1.0 | 1.0 |

MW(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | 0.270 | 1.0 | — | 0.064 | 1.0 | ** | 1.0 | 0.739 |

GN(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | 1.0 | 0.554 | 0.123 | 1.0 |

WD+MW(01) | ** | 0.076 | ** | 0.002 * | 0.866 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 |

AA(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.617 | 1.0 | 0.086 | — | ** | 0.001 * |

AO(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | 1.0 |

AR(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | 0.560 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — |

**Table A11.**Pairwise comparisons with Bonferonni correction for the putEMG dataset. The table shows the p-value of the comparison between the classification accuracy of the methods on the corresponding row and column. Values above the diagonal show the comparisons for $R=15$ and below the diagonal for $R=1$ (last and first row of Table A7, respectively). Values in bold correspond to the comparisons of the method with the highest classification accuracy in Table A7 (i.e., AO). An ‘*’ denotes a significant difference ($\alpha =0.05$), while a ‘**’ denotes a p-value $p<0.001$.

SW(15) | SW(01) | SS1(01) | SS2(01) | WD(01) | MW(01) | GN(01) | WD+MW(01) | AA(01) | AO(01) | AR(01) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SW(15) | — | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** |

SW(01) | ** | — | 1.0 | 0.269 | 0.016* | 0.003 * | ** | 0.022 * | 1.0 | 0.003 * | 0.006 * |

SS1(01) | ** | 1.0 | — | 0.102 | 0.250 | 0.003 * | 0.040 * | 0.604 | 1.0 | ** | 0.002 * |

SS2(01) | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.572 | 1.0 |

WD(01) | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.840 | 1.0 |

MW(01) | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.415 | 1.0 | 1.0 |

GN(01) | ** | 0.050 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | 1.0 | 0.564 | 1.0 | 1.0 |

WD+MW(01) | ** | 0.756 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 |

AA(01) | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | 0.002 * | 0.001 * |

AO(01) | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — | 1.0 |

AR(01) | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | — |

**Table A12.**Pairwise comparisons with Bonferonni correction for the Ninapro-DB1 dataset. The table shows the p-value of the comparison between the clustering metrics of the methods on the corresponding row and column. Values above the diagonal show the comparisons for the SC metrics and below the diagonal for the DB metrics (second and third columns of Table A8, respectively). An ‘*’ denotes a significant difference ($\alpha =0.05$), while a ‘**’ denotes a p-value $p<0.001$.

SW(15) | SW(01) | SS1(01) | SS2(01) | WD(01) | MW(01) | GN(01) | WD+MW(01) | AA(01) | AO(01) | AR(01) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SW(15) | — | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** |

SW(01) | ** | — | ** | ** | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.186 | ** | 1.0 | 0.449 |

SS1(01) | ** | ** | — | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** |

SS2(01) | ** | ** | ** | — | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** |

WD(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | ** | — | 0.060 | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | ** | ** |

MW(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | 0.016 * | 0.220 | — | 1.0 | 0.005 * | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 |

GN(01) | ** | 0.379 | ** | 0.007 * | 0.001 * | 1.0 | — | 0.011 * | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 |

WD+MW(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | ** | 1.0 | 0.703 | 1.0 | — | 0.087 | ** | ** |

AA(01) | ** | 1.0 | ** | ** | 1.0 | 0.004 * | 0.009 * | 0.324 | — | ** | ** |

AO(01) | ** | 0.005 * | ** | 0.029 * | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.014 * | ** | — | 1.0 |

AR(01) | ** | 0.001 * | ** | 0.002 * | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.037 * | ** | 1.0 | — |

**Table A13.**Pairwise comparisons with Bonferonni correction for the putEMG dataset. The table shows the p-value of the comparison between the clustering metrics of the methods on the corresponding row and column. Values above the diagonal show the comparisons for the SC metrics and below the diagonal for the DB metrics (second and third columns of Table A9, respectively). An ‘*’ denotes a significant difference ($\alpha =0.05$), while a ‘**’ denotes a p-value $p<0.001$.

SW(15) | SW(01) | SS1(01) | SS2(01) | WD(01) | MW(01) | GN(01) | WD+MW(01) | AA(01) | AO(01) | AR(01) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

SW(15) | — | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** | ** |

SW(01) | ** | — | ** | ** | 0.001 * | 0.345 | ** | 1.0 | 0.086 | 0.030 * | ** |

SS1(01) | ** | 0.082 | — | ** | ** | 0.002 * | ** | ** | 0.006 * | ** | ** |

SS2(01) | ** | ** | ** | — | 1.0 | ** | 1.0 | ** | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 |

WD(01) | ** | ** | ** | 1.0 | — | ** | 1.0 | ** | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 |

MW(01) | ** | 1.0 | 0.008 * | ** | 0.009 * | — | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | ** | ** |

GN(01) | ** | ** | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.029 * | — | ** | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 |

WD+MW(01) | ** | 1.0 | 0.008 * | ** | 0.003 * | 1.0 | 0.036 * | — | 1.0 | ** | ** |

AA(01) | ** | 1.0 | 0.022 * | ** | ** | 1.0 | 0.003 * | 1.0 | — | ** | ** |

AO(01) | ** | ** | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | ** | 1.0 | 0.001 * | ** | — | 0.329 |

AR(01) | ** | ** | ** | 1.0 | 1.0 | ** | 1.0 | ** | ** | 1.0 | — |

**Table A14.**Average accuracy of WeiNet for each method at different augmentation ratios, R, for the Ninapro-DB1 dataset. The value in bold corresponds to the highest accuracy.

R | WD | MW | WD + MW |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 0.8439 | 0.8514 | 0.8498 |

4 | 0.8413 | 0.8556 | 0.8493 |

9 | 0.8421 | 0.8573 | 0.8541 |

15 | 0.8239 | 0.8581 | 0.8511 |

SW(01) (baseline-2): 0.8480. |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Tsinganos, P.; Cornelis, B.; Cornelis, J.; Jansen, B.; Skodras, A.
Data Augmentation of Surface Electromyography for Hand Gesture Recognition. *Sensors* **2020**, *20*, 4892.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174892

**AMA Style**

Tsinganos P, Cornelis B, Cornelis J, Jansen B, Skodras A.
Data Augmentation of Surface Electromyography for Hand Gesture Recognition. *Sensors*. 2020; 20(17):4892.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174892

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Tsinganos, Panagiotis, Bruno Cornelis, Jan Cornelis, Bart Jansen, and Athanassios Skodras.
2020. "Data Augmentation of Surface Electromyography for Hand Gesture Recognition" *Sensors* 20, no. 17: 4892.
https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174892