Over the last decade, video surveillance systems have become a part of the Internet of Things (IoT). These IP-based surveillance systems now protect industrial facilities, railways, gas stations, and even one’s own home. Unfortunately, like other IoT systems, there are inherent security risks which can lead to significant violations of a user’s privacy. In this review, we explore the attack surface of modern surveillance systems and enumerate the various ways they can be compromised with real examples. We also identify the threat agents, their attack goals, attack vectors, and the resulting consequences of successful attacks. Finally, we present current countermeasures and best practices and discuss the threat horizon. The purpose of this review is to provide researchers and engineers with a better understanding of a modern surveillance systems’ security, to harden existing systems and develop improved security solutions.
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