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Article

Characterisation of GNSS Carrier Phase Data on a Moving Zero-Baseline in Urban and Aerial Navigation

Institut für Erdmessung (IfE), Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover, Germany
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Sensors 2020, 20(14), 4046; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20144046
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 18 July 2020 / Published: 21 July 2020
We present analyses of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) carrier phase observations in multiple kinematic scenarios for different receiver types. Multi-GNSS observations are recorded on high sensitivity and geodetic-grade receivers operating on a moving zero-baseline by conducting terrestrial urban and aerial flight experiments. The captured data is post-processed; carrier phase residuals are computed using the double difference (DD) concept. The estimated noise levels of carrier phases are analysed with respect to different parameters. We find DD noise levels for L1 carrier phase observations in the range of 1.4–2 mm (GPS, Global Positioning System), 2.8–4.6 mm (GLONASS, Global Navigation Satellite System), and 1.5–1.7 mm (Galileo) for geodetic receiver pairs. The noise level for high sensitivity receivers is at least higher by a factor of 2. For satellites elevating above 30 , the dominant noise process is white phase noise. For the flight experiment, the elevation dependency of the noise is well described by the exponential model, while for the terrestrial urban experiment, multipath and diffraction effects overlay; hence no elevation dependency is found. For both experiments, a carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N 0 ) dependency for carrier phase DDs of GPS and Galileo is clearly visible with geodetic-grade receivers. In addition, C/N 0 dependency is also visible for carrier phase DDs of GLONASS with geodetic-grade receivers for the terrestrial urban experiment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS); kinematic terrestrial and flight experiment; geodetic and high sensitivity GNSS receivers; double difference; relative positioning; stochastic models Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS); kinematic terrestrial and flight experiment; geodetic and high sensitivity GNSS receivers; double difference; relative positioning; stochastic models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruwisch, F.; Jain, A.; Schön, S. Characterisation of GNSS Carrier Phase Data on a Moving Zero-Baseline in Urban and Aerial Navigation. Sensors 2020, 20, 4046. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20144046

AMA Style

Ruwisch F, Jain A, Schön S. Characterisation of GNSS Carrier Phase Data on a Moving Zero-Baseline in Urban and Aerial Navigation. Sensors. 2020; 20(14):4046. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20144046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruwisch, Fabian; Jain, Ankit; Schön, Steffen. 2020. "Characterisation of GNSS Carrier Phase Data on a Moving Zero-Baseline in Urban and Aerial Navigation" Sensors 20, no. 14: 4046. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20144046

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