We present analyses of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) carrier phase observations in multiple kinematic scenarios for different receiver types. Multi-GNSS observations are recorded on high sensitivity and geodetic-grade receivers operating on a moving zero-baseline by conducting terrestrial urban and aerial flight experiments. The captured data is post-processed; carrier phase residuals are computed using the double difference (DD) concept. The estimated noise levels of carrier phases are analysed with respect to different parameters. We find DD noise levels for L1 carrier phase observations in the range of 1.4–2 mm (GPS, Global Positioning System), 2.8–4.6 mm (GLONASS, Global Navigation Satellite System), and 1.5–1.7 mm (Galileo) for geodetic receiver pairs. The noise level for high sensitivity receivers is at least higher by a factor of 2. For satellites elevating above
, the dominant noise process is white phase noise. For the flight experiment, the elevation dependency of the noise is well described by the exponential model, while for the terrestrial urban experiment, multipath and diffraction effects overlay; hence no elevation dependency is found. For both experiments, a carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N
) dependency for carrier phase DDs of GPS and Galileo is clearly visible with geodetic-grade receivers. In addition, C/N
dependency is also visible for carrier phase DDs of GLONASS with geodetic-grade receivers for the terrestrial urban experiment.
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