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Recent Advances in the Electrochemical Sensing of Venlafaxine: An Antidepressant Drug and Environmental Contaminant

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Research Center for Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman 76169-11319, Iran
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Environment Department, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman 76311-33131, Iran
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Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Organic Materials, Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
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Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
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Laboratory of Advanced Materials Chemistry, Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
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Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3675; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133675
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Materials)
Venlafaxine (VEN), as one of the popular anti-depressants, is widely utilized for the treatment of major depressive disorder, panic disorder, as well as anxiety. This drug influences the chemicals in the brain, which may result in imbalance in depressed individuals. However, venlafaxine and its metabolites are contaminants in water. They have exerted an adverse influence on living organisms through their migration and transformation in various forms of adsorption, photolysis, hydrolysis, and biodegradation followed by the formation of various active compounds in the environment. Hence, it is crucial to determine VEN with low concentrations in high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. Some analytical techniques have been practically designed to quantify VEN. However, electroanalytical procedures have been of interest due to the superior advantages in comparison to conventional techniques, because such methods feature rapidity, simplicity, sensitivity, and affordability. Therefore, this mini-review aims to present the electrochemical determination of VEN with diverse electrodes, such as carbon paste electrodes, glassy carbon electrodes, mercury-based electrodes, screen-printed electrodes, pencil graphite electrodes, and ion-selective electrodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: venlafaxine; modified electrode; voltammetry; electrochemical sensor venlafaxine; modified electrode; voltammetry; electrochemical sensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tajik, S.; Beitollahi, H.; Dourandish, Z.; Zhang, K.; Le, Q.V.; Nguyen, T.P.; Kim, S.Y.; Shokouhimehr, M. Recent Advances in the Electrochemical Sensing of Venlafaxine: An Antidepressant Drug and Environmental Contaminant. Sensors 2020, 20, 3675.

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