Next Article in Journal
Energy-Efficient Cluster Management Using a Mobile Charger for Solar-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis and Testing of a Suitable Compatible Electrode’s Material for Continuous Measurement of Glucose Concentration
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Validity and Reliability of a New Simple Instrument for the Measurement of First Ray Mobility
Open AccessArticle

Effects of Artificial Texture Insoles and Foot Arches on Improving Arch Collapse in Flat Feet

Information Management, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan
Plastic Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital Yunlin Branch, Yunlin 640203, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3667;
Received: 16 May 2020 / Revised: 27 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Podiatry)
The arches of the foot play a vital role in cushioning the impact and pressure generated from ground reaction forces due to body weight. Owing to a lack of normal human arch structure, people diagnosed as having flat feet often have discomfort in the soles of their feet. The results may not only cause inappropriate foot pressure distribution on the sole but also further cause foot injuries. This study heavily relies on a homemade foot pressure sensing device equipped with textured insoles of different heights and artificial arches. This was to explore the extent to which the pressure distribution of the foot in people with flat feet could be improved. A further comparison was made of the effects of using the textured insoles with different heights on two different groups of people diagnosed with flat and normal feet respectively. Sixty-five undergraduate and postgraduate volunteers were invited to receive the ink footprint test for measuring their degrees of arch index. Nine of these 65 had 2 flat feet, 3 had a left flat foot, 5 had a right flat foot, and 48 had 2 normal feet. To ensure the same number of subjects in both the control and the experimental groups, 9 of the 48 subjects who had normal feet were randomly selected. In total, 26 subjects (Male: 25, Female: 1; Age: 22 ± 1 years; height: 173.6 ± 2.5 cm; body mass: 68.3 ± 5.4 kg; BMI: 22.6 ± 1.2) were invited to participate in this foot pressure sensing insoles study. The experimental results showed that the use of textured insoles designed with different heights could not effectively improve the plantar pressure distribution and body stability in subjects with flat feet. Conversely, the use of an artificial arch effectively improved the excessive peak in pressure and poor body stability, and alleviated the problem of plantar collapse for patients with flat feet, especially in the inner part of their hallux and forefoot. View Full-Text
Keywords: textured insole; arch insole; analysis of variance; plantar pressure; flat feet textured insole; arch insole; analysis of variance; plantar pressure; flat feet
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Y.-T.; Chen, J.-C.; Lin, Y.-S. Effects of Artificial Texture Insoles and Foot Arches on Improving Arch Collapse in Flat Feet. Sensors 2020, 20, 3667.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop