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Open AccessArticle

DIEER: Delay-Intolerant Energy-Efficient Routing with Sink Mobility in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

1
National Institute of Electronics, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
Department of Information System, College of Computer Engineering and Sciences, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudia Arabia
4
The University of New South Wales (UNSW), School of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE), Sydney 2052, Australia
5
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Campus, Wah Cantt 47040, Pakistan
6
Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3467; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123467
Received: 16 March 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are an enabling technology for many applications in commercial, military, and scientific domains. In some emergency response applications of UWSN, data dissemination is more important, therefore these applications are handled differently as compared to energy-focused approaches, which is only possible when propagation delay is minimized and packet delivery at surface sinks is assured. Packet delivery underwater is a serious concern because of harsh underwater environments and the dense deployment of nodes, which causes collisions and packet loss. Resultantly, re-transmission causes energy loss and increases end-to-end delay ( D E 2 E ). In this work, we devise a framework for the joint optimization of sink mobility, hold and forward mechanisms, adoptive depth threshold ( d t h ) and data aggregation with pattern matching for reducing nodal propagation delay, maximizing throughput, improving network lifetime, and minimizing energy consumption. To evaluate our technique, we simulate the three-dimensional (3-D) underwater network environment with mobile sink and dense deployments of sensor nodes with varying communication radii. We carry out scalability analysis of the proposed framework in terms of network lifetime, throughput, and packet drop. We also compare our framework to existing techniques, i.e., Mobicast and iAMCTD protocols. We note that adapting varying d t h based on node density in a range of network deployment scenarios results in a reduced number of re-transmissions, good energy conservation, and enhanced throughput. Furthermore, results from extensive simulations show that our proposed framework achieves better performance over existing approaches for real-time delay-intolerant applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: delay sensitive; under water WSN routing; energy-efficient routing; wireless sensor networks; sink mobility delay sensitive; under water WSN routing; energy-efficient routing; wireless sensor networks; sink mobility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Latif, K.; Javaid, N.; Ullah, I.; Kaleem, Z.; Abbas Malik, Z.; Nguyen, L.D. DIEER: Delay-Intolerant Energy-Efficient Routing with Sink Mobility in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2020, 20, 3467. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123467

AMA Style

Latif K, Javaid N, Ullah I, Kaleem Z, Abbas Malik Z, Nguyen LD. DIEER: Delay-Intolerant Energy-Efficient Routing with Sink Mobility in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2020; 20(12):3467. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123467

Chicago/Turabian Style

Latif, Kamran; Javaid, Nadeem; Ullah, Imdad; Kaleem, Zeeshan; Abbas Malik, Zafar; Nguyen, Long D. 2020. "DIEER: Delay-Intolerant Energy-Efficient Routing with Sink Mobility in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks" Sensors 20, no. 12: 3467. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123467

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