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Open AccessArticle

Quantification of Triple Single-Leg Hop Test Temporospatial Parameters: A Validated Method Using Body-Worn Sensors for Functional Evaluation after Knee Injury

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada
2
Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
3
Arthritis Research Canada, Richmond, BC V6X 2C7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3464; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123464
Received: 13 May 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Worn Sensors and Related Applications)
Lower extremity kinematic alterations associated with sport-related knee injuries may contribute to an unsuccessful return to sport or early-onset post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Also, without access to sophisticated motion-capture systems, temporospatial monitoring of horizontal hop tests during clinical assessments is limited. By applying an alternative measurement system of two inertial measurement units (IMUs) per limb, we obtained and validated flying/landing times and hop distances of triple single-leg hop (TSLH) test against motion-capture cameras, assessed these temporospatial parameters amongst injured and uninjured groups, and investigated their association with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Using kinematic features of IMU recordings, strap-down integration, and velocity correction techniques, temporospatial parameters were validated for 10 able-bodied participants and compared between 22 youth with sport-related knee injuries and 10 uninjured youth. With median (interquartile range) errors less than 10(16) ms for flying/landing times, and less than 4.4(5.6)% and 2.4(3.0)% of reference values for individual hops and total TSLH progression, differences between hopping biomechanics of study groups were highlighted. For injured participants, second flying time and all hop distances demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with KOOS Symptom and Function in Daily Living scores. Detailed temporospatial monitoring of hop tests is feasible using the proposed IMUs system. View Full-Text
Keywords: knee assessment; inertial measurement unit; ambulatory monitoring; criterion-related validation; construct validation; functional test; return-to-sport testing; triple single-leg hop test; temporal events; hopped distance knee assessment; inertial measurement unit; ambulatory monitoring; criterion-related validation; construct validation; functional test; return-to-sport testing; triple single-leg hop test; temporal events; hopped distance
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Ahmadian, N.; Nazarahari, M.; Whittaker, J.L.; Rouhani, H. Quantification of Triple Single-Leg Hop Test Temporospatial Parameters: A Validated Method Using Body-Worn Sensors for Functional Evaluation after Knee Injury. Sensors 2020, 20, 3464.

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