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Open AccessArticle

Monitoring of Epoxy-Grouted Bonding Strength Development between an Anchored Steel Bar and Concrete Using PZT-Enabled Active Sensing

by Jian Jiang 1,2,†, Chuang Hei 3,†, Qian Feng 1,2,* and Jinwei Jiang 4,*
1
Key Laboratory of Earthquake Geodesy, Institute of Seismology, China Earthquake Administration, Wuhan 430071, China
2
Wuhan Institute of Earthquake Engineering Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430071, China
3
School of Electronics and Information, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, China
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The co-first authors have equal contribution to this manuscript.
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 2096; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19092096
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors and Smart Structures)
Anchored steel bars have been widely used in retrofitting of existing concrete structures. The bonding strength between the anchored steel bar and the concrete is critical to the integrity of the strengthened concrete structure. This paper presents a method to monitor epoxy-grouted bonding strength development by using a piezoceramic-enabled active sensing technique. One concrete beam with an anchored steel bar was involved in the monitoring test, and two concrete beams with six anchored steel bars were used in the pull-out test. To enable the active sensing, a Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) patch was bonded to the surface of the exposed end, and piezoceramic smart aggregates were embedded in each concrete specimen. During the monitoring experiment, signals from PZT sensors and smart aggregates were acquired at intervals of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. In addition, a pull-out test was performed on each of the remaining six anchored steel bars in the two concrete beams, while the signal was recorded in the test. Furthermore, a wavelet packet analysis was applied to analyze the received signal energies to investigate the bonding strength development between the concrete and the anchored steel bar during the epoxy solidification process. The test results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in monitoring the bonding strength development between the anchored steel bar and the concrete, using the PZT-enabled active sensing. View Full-Text
Keywords: anchored steel bar; lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer; bonding strength development monitoring; active sensing anchored steel bar; lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer; bonding strength development monitoring; active sensing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, J.; Hei, C.; Feng, Q.; Jiang, J. Monitoring of Epoxy-Grouted Bonding Strength Development between an Anchored Steel Bar and Concrete Using PZT-Enabled Active Sensing. Sensors 2019, 19, 2096.

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