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Open AccessArticle

Complete Meniscus Removal Method for Broadband Liquid Characterization in a Semi-Open Coaxial Test Cell

Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
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This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances (ISEMA), IEEE, Lublin, Poland, 4–7 June 2018 by M.K. and W.W.: Experimental Study of Meniscus Effect on Broadband Permittivity Measurements of Liquids in a Semi-Open Coaxial Test Cell.
Sensors 2019, 19(9), 2092; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19092092
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISEMA 2018)
We present a new technique for broadband liquid characterization using a semi-open, vertically oriented test cell that is measured with a calibrated vector network analyzer in three states: the empty one and filled with two different volumes of the liquid under test. Using the measurements, we de-embed a transfer matrix representing a volume increment of the liquid sample and determine its column height with a novel closed-form formula. Thanks to the de-embedding, the method enables one, for the first time, to completely remove effects caused by a reproducible meniscus forming the top surface of a liquid tested in the cell and determine not only the propagation constant, but also characteristic impedance of the liquid sample, from which its permittivity and permeability are calculated. The results are highly consistent, because all the measurements are performed without disassembling the cell. We validate experimental results of the meniscus removal method by comparing them with reference data and outcomes of the Nicolson–Ross–Weir method. View Full-Text
Keywords: complex permittivity; permeability; microwave measurements; liquids; meniscus; vector network analyzer; network de-embedding complex permittivity; permeability; microwave measurements; liquids; meniscus; vector network analyzer; network de-embedding
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Kalisiak, M.; Wiatr, W. Complete Meniscus Removal Method for Broadband Liquid Characterization in a Semi-Open Coaxial Test Cell. Sensors 2019, 19, 2092.

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