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Article

Aggregation of GPS, WLAN, and BLE Localization Measurements for Mobile Devices in Simulated Environments

Institute of Theoretical and Applied Informatics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Baltycka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1694; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071694
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
There are multiple available technologies to find the location of a mobile device, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), Bluetooth Low-Energy beacons (BLE), and Wireless LAN (WLAN) localization. We propose a novel method to estimate the location of a moving device by aggregating information from multiple positioning systems into a single, more precise location estimation. The aggregated location is calculated as the place in which the product of the probability density functions (PDF) of individual methods has the maximum value. The experimental probability density functions of the three analyzed technologies are fitted by gamma distributions based on error histograms found in the literature and measurement data. The location measurements of the individual technologies are provided at different time instants, so the weighted product of the PDFs is used to improve aggregation accuracy. The discrete event-simulation model was used to evaluate the aggregation method with the Gauss–Markov mobility model. Simulations demonstrated that the calculated aggregated location was more accurate than any of the methods taken as the input, and average error was decreased by almost 13% compared to an arithmetic mean of the three considered localization methods, and by more than 36% compared to the single method with the highest accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: BLE; GPS; WiFi; localization; positioning system; location aggregation; IPS BLE; GPS; WiFi; localization; positioning system; location aggregation; IPS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Książek, K.; Grochla, K. Aggregation of GPS, WLAN, and BLE Localization Measurements for Mobile Devices in Simulated Environments. Sensors 2019, 19, 1694. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071694

AMA Style

Książek K, Grochla K. Aggregation of GPS, WLAN, and BLE Localization Measurements for Mobile Devices in Simulated Environments. Sensors. 2019; 19(7):1694. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071694

Chicago/Turabian Style

Książek, Kamil, and Krzysztof Grochla. 2019. "Aggregation of GPS, WLAN, and BLE Localization Measurements for Mobile Devices in Simulated Environments" Sensors 19, no. 7: 1694. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071694

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