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Deformation Monitoring of Earth Fissure Hazards Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning
Open AccessArticle

How to Efficiently Determine the Range Precision of 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanners

Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(6), 1466;
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terrestrial Laser Scanning)
As laser scanning technology has improved a lot in recent years, terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have become popular devices for surveying tasks with high accuracy demands, such as deformation analyses. For this reason, finding a stochastic model for TLS measurements is very important in order to get statistically reliable results. The measurement accuracy of laser scanners—especially of their rangefinders—is strongly dependent on the scanning conditions, such as the scan configuration, the object surface geometry and the object reflectivity. This study demonstrates a way to determine the intensity-dependent range precision of 3D points for terrestrial laser scanners that measure in 3D mode by using range residuals in laser beam direction of a best plane fit. This method does not require special targets or surfaces aligned perpendicular to the scanner, which allows a much quicker and easier determination of the stochastic properties of the rangefinder. Furthermore, the different intensity types—raw and scaled—intensities are investigated since some manufacturers only provide scaled intensities. It is demonstrated that the intensity function can be derived from raw intensity values as written in literature, and likewise—in a restricted measurement volume—from scaled intensity values if the raw intensities are not available. View Full-Text
Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; range precision; intensity; stochastic model terrestrial laser scanning; range precision; intensity; stochastic model
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Schmitz, B.; Holst, C.; Medic, T.; Lichti, D.D.; Kuhlmann, H. How to Efficiently Determine the Range Precision of 3D Terrestrial Laser Scanners. Sensors 2019, 19, 1466.

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