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Modified Surface Relief Layer Created by Holographic Lithography: Application to Selective Sodium and Potassium Sensing

1
Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics/School of Physics and Clinical & Optometric Sciences, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin, Dublin D08 NF82, Ireland
2
School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Sciences and Health, Technological University Dublin, Dublin D08 NF82, Ireland
3
FOCAS, Technological University Dublin, Dublin D08 NF82, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051026
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanophotonic Sensors)
Point-of-care diagnostics will rely upon the development of low-cost, noncomplex, and easily integrated systems in order to examine biological samples such as blood and urine obtained from the patient. The development of metal ion sensors is a subject of significant relevance for physiological samples. The level of different blood electrolytes, mainly H+, Na+, K+ and Cl is considerably used to monitor irregular physiologies. The particular challenge in biosensing, and in fact for any other sensor, is signal differentiation between non-specifically bound material and the specific detecting of the target molecule/ion. The biosensors described in this paper are fabricated by a holographic recording of surface relief structures in a photopolymer material. The surface structures are modified by coating with either dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DC) or tetraethyl 4-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (TBC), which are embedded in a polymer matrix. Interrogation of these structures by light allows indirect measurement of the concentration of the analyte. The influence of polymer matrices with different porosities, plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and a sol-gel matrix, on the performance of the sensors for detection of K+ and Na+ is examined. Here we demonstrate a proof of concept that by using a matrix with higher porosity one can increase the sensitivity of the sensor. The results showed that the DC sensing layer provides a selective response to K+ over Na+ and the TBC modified grating is more responsive to Na+ over K+. The sensor responds to K+ and Na+ within the physiological concentration ranges. View Full-Text
Keywords: holographic sensors; diffractive optical sensors; biomedical sensors; sensors; holography; photopolymers; potassium ion detection; sodium ion detection; blood serum; PVC; sol gel holographic sensors; diffractive optical sensors; biomedical sensors; sensors; holography; photopolymers; potassium ion detection; sodium ion detection; blood serum; PVC; sol gel
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gul, S.-E.; O’Neill, L.; Cassidy, J.; Naydenova, I. Modified Surface Relief Layer Created by Holographic Lithography: Application to Selective Sodium and Potassium Sensing. Sensors 2019, 19, 1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051026

AMA Style

Gul S-E, O’Neill L, Cassidy J, Naydenova I. Modified Surface Relief Layer Created by Holographic Lithography: Application to Selective Sodium and Potassium Sensing. Sensors. 2019; 19(5):1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gul, Sabad-E, Luke O’Neill, John Cassidy, and Izabela Naydenova. 2019. "Modified Surface Relief Layer Created by Holographic Lithography: Application to Selective Sodium and Potassium Sensing" Sensors 19, no. 5: 1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051026

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