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Sensors 2019, 19(3), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030719

Accurate 3D Shape, Displacement and Deformation Measurement Using a Smartphone

COHMAS Laboratory, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division (PSE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
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Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract

The stereo-digital image correlation technique using two synchronized industrial-grade cameras has been extensively used for full-field 3D shape, displacement and deformation measurements. However, its use in resource-limited institutions and field settings is inhibited by the need for relatively expensive, bulky and complicated experimental set-ups. To mitigate this problem, we established a cost-effective and ultra-portable smartphone-based stereo-digital image correlation system, which only uses a smartphone and an optical attachment. This optical attachment is composed of four planar mirrors and a 3D-printed mirror support, and can split the incoming scene into two sub-images, simulating a stereovision system using two virtual smartphones. Although such a mirror-based system has already been used for stereo-image correlation, this is the first time it has been combined with a commercial smartphone. This publication explores the potential and limitations of such a configuration. We first verified the effectiveness and accuracy of this system in 3D shape and displacement measurement through shape measurement and in-plane and out-of-plane translation tests. Severe thermal-induced virtual strains (up to 15,000 με) were found in the measured results due to the smartphone heating. The mechanism for the generation of the temperature-dependent errors in this system was clearly and reasonably explained. After a simple preheating process, the smartphone-based system was demonstrated to be accurate in measuring the strain on the surface of a loaded composite specimen, with comparable accuracy to a strain gauge. Measurements of 3D deformation are illustrated by tracking the deformation on the surface of a deflating ball. This cost-effective and ultra-portable smartphone-based system not only greatly decreases the hardware investment in the system construction, but also increases convenience and efficiency of 3D deformation measurements, thus demonstrating a large potential in resource-limited and field settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: stereo-digital image correlation; smartphone; optical attachment stereo-digital image correlation; smartphone; optical attachment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yu, L.; Tao, R.; Lubineau, G. Accurate 3D Shape, Displacement and Deformation Measurement Using a Smartphone. Sensors 2019, 19, 719.

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