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Comparison of Standard Clinical and Instrumented Physical Performance Tests in Discriminating Functional Status of High-Functioning People Aged 61–70 Years Old

Department of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi” (DEI), University of Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy
Department of Human Movement Sciences, @AgeAmsterdam, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
Department of Clinical Gerontology, Robert Bosch Medical Foundation, 70376 Stuttgart, Germany
Health Sciences and Technologies—Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research (HST-ICIR), University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Department of Medicine and Aged Care, @AgeMelbourne, University of Melbourne, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3050, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 449;
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
PDF [1793 KB, uploaded 29 January 2019]


Assessment of physical performance by standard clinical tests such as the 30-s Chair Stand (30CST) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) may allow early detection of functional decline, even in high-functioning populations, and facilitate preventive interventions. Inertial sensors are emerging to obtain instrumented measures that can provide subtle details regarding the quality of the movement while performing such tests. We compared standard clinical with instrumented measures of physical performance in their ability to distinguish between high and very high functional status, stratified by the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI). We assessed 160 participants from the PreventIT study (66.3 ± 2.4 years, 87 females, median LLFDI 72.31, range: 44.33–100) performing the 30CST and TUG while a smartphone was attached to their lower back. The number of 30CST repetitions and the stopwatch-based TUG duration were recorded. Instrumented features were computed from the smartphone embedded inertial sensors. Four logistic regression models were fitted and the Areas Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) were calculated and compared using the DeLong test. Standard clinical and instrumented measures of 30CST both showed equal moderate discriminative ability of 0.68 (95%CI 0.60–0.76), p = 0.97. Similarly, for TUG: AUC was 0.68 (95%CI 0.60–0.77) and 0.65 (95%CI 0.56–0.73), respectively, p = 0.26. In conclusion, both clinical and instrumented measures, recorded through a smartphone, can discriminate early functional decline in healthy adults aged 61–70 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: instrumented assessments; smartphone; standard clinical measures; physical function instrumented assessments; smartphone; standard clinical measures; physical function

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Coni, A.; Van Ancum, J.M.; Bergquist, R.; Mikolaizak, A.S.; Mellone, S.; Chiari, L.; Maier, A.B.; Pijnappels, M. Comparison of Standard Clinical and Instrumented Physical Performance Tests in Discriminating Functional Status of High-Functioning People Aged 61–70 Years Old. Sensors 2019, 19, 449.

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