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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of the Accuracy of Determining the Angular Position of the Unmanned Bathymetric Surveying Vehicle Based on the Sea Horizon Image

1
Faculty of Navigation and Naval Weapons, Polish Naval Academy, Smidowicza 69, 81–103 Gdynia, Poland
2
Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Polish Naval Academy, Smidowicza 69, 81–103 Gdynia, Poland
3
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Geodesy, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80–233 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4644; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214644
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 20 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and System for Vehicle Navigation)
The paper presents the results of research on assessing the accuracy of angular position measurement relative to the sea horizon using a camera mounted on an unmanned bathymetric surveying vehicle of the Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) type. The first part of the article presents the essence of the problem. The rules of taking the angular position of the vehicle into account in bathymetric surveys and the general concept of the two-camera tilt compensator were described. The second part presents a mathematical description of the meters characterizing a resolution and a mean error of measurements, made on the base of the horizon line image, recorded with an optical system with a Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) matrix. The phenomenon of the horizon line curvature in the image projected onto the matrix that appears with the increase of the camera height has been characterized. The third part contains an example of a detailed analysis of selected cameras mounted on UAVs manufactured by DJI, carried out using the proposed meters. The obtained results including measurement resolutions of a single-pixel and mean errors of the horizon line slope measurement were presented in the form of many tables and charts with extensive comments. The final part presents the general conclusions from the performed research and a proposal of directions for their further development. View Full-Text
Keywords: bathymetric surveying; roll and pitch; image of the sea horizon bathymetric surveying; roll and pitch; image of the sea horizon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Naus, K.; Marchel, Ł.; Szymak, P.; Nowak, A. Assessment of the Accuracy of Determining the Angular Position of the Unmanned Bathymetric Surveying Vehicle Based on the Sea Horizon Image. Sensors 2019, 19, 4644. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214644

AMA Style

Naus K, Marchel Ł, Szymak P, Nowak A. Assessment of the Accuracy of Determining the Angular Position of the Unmanned Bathymetric Surveying Vehicle Based on the Sea Horizon Image. Sensors. 2019; 19(21):4644. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214644

Chicago/Turabian Style

Naus, Krzysztof; Marchel, Łukasz; Szymak, Piotr; Nowak, Aleksander. 2019. "Assessment of the Accuracy of Determining the Angular Position of the Unmanned Bathymetric Surveying Vehicle Based on the Sea Horizon Image" Sensors 19, no. 21: 4644. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214644

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