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Open AccessArticle

A Convex Optimization Algorithm for Compressed Sensing in a Complex Domain: The Complex-Valued Split Bregman Method

School of Artificial Intelligence, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China
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Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4540; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204540
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 11 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
The Split Bregman method (SBM), a popular and universal CS reconstruction algorithm for inverse problems with both l1-norm and TV-norm regularization, has been extensively applied in complex domains through the complex-to-real transforming technique, e.g., MRI imaging and radar. However, SBM still has great potential in complex applications due to the following two points; Bregman Iteration (BI), employed in SBM, may not make good use of the phase information for complex variables. In addition, the converting technique may consume more time. To address that, this paper presents the complex-valued Split Bregman method (CV-SBM), which theoretically generalizes the original SBM into the complex domain. The complex-valued Bregman distance (CV-BD) is first defined by replacing the corresponding regularization in the inverse problem. Then, we propose the complex-valued Bregman Iteration (CV-BI) to solve this new problem. How well-defined and the convergence of CV-BI are analyzed in detail according to the complex-valued calculation rules and optimization theory. These properties prove that CV-BI is able to solve inverse problems if the regularization is convex. Nevertheless, CV-BI needs the help of other algorithms for various kinds of regularization. To avoid the dependence on extra algorithms and simplify the iteration process simultaneously, we adopt the variable separation technique and propose CV-SBM for resolving convex inverse problems. Simulation results on complex-valued l1-norm problems illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed CV-SBM. CV-SBM exhibits remarkable superiority compared with SBM in the complex-to-real transforming technique. Specifically, in the case of large signal scale n = 512, CV-SBM yields 18.2%, 17.6%, and 26.7% lower mean square error (MSE) as well as takes 28.8%, 25.6%, and 23.6% less time cost than the original SBM in 10 dB, 15 dB, and 20 dB SNR situations, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: Split Bregman method; Bregman Iteration; complex domain; convex optimization; compressed sensing Split Bregman method; Bregman Iteration; complex domain; convex optimization; compressed sensing
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Xiong, K.; Zhao, G.; Shi, G.; Wang, Y. A Convex Optimization Algorithm for Compressed Sensing in a Complex Domain: The Complex-Valued Split Bregman Method. Sensors 2019, 19, 4540.

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