Waterborne diseases that originated due to pathogen microorganisms are emerging as a serious global health concern. Therefore, rapid, accurate, and specific detection of these microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic pathogens) in water resources has become a requirement of water quality assessment. Significant research has been conducted to develop rapid, efficient, scalable, and affordable sensing techniques to detect biological contaminants. State-of-the-art technology-assisted smart sensors have improved features (high sensitivity and very low detection limit) and can perform in a real-time manner. However, there is still a need to promote this area of research, keeping global aspects and demand in mind. Keeping this view, this article was designed carefully and critically to explore sensing technologies developed for the detection of biological contaminants. Advancements using paper-based assays, microfluidic platforms, and lateral flow devices are discussed in this report. The emerging recent trends, mainly point-of-care (POC) technologies, of water safety analysis are also discussed here, along with challenges and future prospective applications of these smart sensing technologies for water health diagnostics.
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