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Open AccessArticle

Explicit and Implicit Responses to Tasting Drinks Associated with Different Tasting Experiences

1
Kikkoman Europe R&D Laboratory B.V., 6709 PA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Microbiology and Systems Biology, TNO, 3704 HE Zeist, The Netherlands
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Perceptual and Cognitive Systems, TNO, 3769 DE Soesterberg, The Netherlands
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Research Group Human Media Interaction, University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4397; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204397 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 August 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 7 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Affective Computing and Sentiment Analysis)
Probing food experience or liking through verbal ratings has its shortcomings. We compare explicit ratings to a range of (neuro)physiological and behavioral measures with respect to their performance in distinguishing drinks associated with different emotional experience. Seventy participants tasted and rated the valence and arousal of eight regular drinks and a “ground truth” high-arousal, low-valence vinegar solution. The discriminative power for distinguishing between the vinegar solution and the regular drinks was highest for sip size, followed by valence ratings, arousal ratings, heart rate, skin conductance level, facial expression of “disgust,” pupil diameter, and Electroencephalogram (EEG) frontal alpha asymmetry. Within the regular drinks, a positive correlation was found between rated arousal and heart rate, and a negative correlation between rated arousal and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Most physiological measures showed consistent temporal patterns over time following the announcement of the drink and taking a sip. This was consistent over all nine drinks, but the peaks were substantially higher for the vinegar solution than for the regular drinks, likely caused by emotion. Our results indicate that implicit variables have the potential to differentiate between drinks associated with different emotional experiences. In addition, this study gives us insight into the physiological temporal response patterns associated with taking a sip. View Full-Text
Keywords: explicit measure; implicit measure; behavioral measure; (neuro)physiological measure; food-evoked emotion; discriminative power explicit measure; implicit measure; behavioral measure; (neuro)physiological measure; food-evoked emotion; discriminative power
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Kaneko, D.; Hogervorst, M.; Toet, A.; van Erp, J.B.F.; Kallen, V.; Brouwer, A.-M. Explicit and Implicit Responses to Tasting Drinks Associated with Different Tasting Experiences. Sensors 2019, 19, 4397.

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