Machine learning-based indoor localization used to suffer from the collection, construction, and maintenance of labeled training databases for practical implementation. Semi-supervised learning methods have been developed as efficient indoor localization methods to reduce use of labeled training data. To boost the efficiency and the accuracy of indoor localization, this paper proposes a new time-series semi-supervised learning algorithm. The key aspect of the developed method, which distinguishes it from conventional semi-supervised algorithms, is the use of unlabeled data. The learning algorithm finds spatio-temporal relationships in the unlabeled data, and pseudolabels are generated to compensate for the lack of labeled training data. In the next step, another balancing-optimization learning algorithm learns a positioning model. The proposed method is evaluated for estimating the location of a smartphone user by using a Wi-Fi received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurement. The experimental results show that the developed learning algorithm outperforms some existing semi-supervised algorithms according to the variation of the number of training data and access points. Also, the proposed method is discussed in terms of why it gives better performance, by the analysis of the impact of the learning parameters. Moreover, the extended localization scheme in conjunction with a particle filter is executed to include additional information, such as a floor plan.
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