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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Bipolar, Tripolar, and Quadripolar Laplacian Estimates of Electrocardiogram via Concentric Ring Electrodes

1
Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Bioingeniería, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Mathematics, Diné College, Tsaile, AZ 86556, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3780; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173780
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 22 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Biopotential, Physiological and Biomedical Monitoring)
Surface Laplacian estimates via concentric ring electrodes (CREs) have proven to enhance spatial resolution compared to conventional disc electrodes, which is of great importance for P-wave analysis. In this study, Laplacian estimates for traditional bipolar configuration (BC), two tripolar configurations with linearly decreasing and increasing inter-ring distances (TCLDIRD and TCLIIRD, respectively), and quadripolar configuration (QC) were obtained from cardiac recordings with pentapolar CREs placed at CMV1 and CMV2 positions. Normalized P-wave amplitude (NAP) was computed to assess the contrast to study atrial activity. Signals were of good quality (20–30 dB). Atrial activity was more emphasized at CMV1 (NAP ≃ 0.19–0.24) compared to CMV2 (NAP ≃ 0.08–0.10). Enhanced spatial resolution of TCLIIRD and QC resulted in higher NAP values than BC and TCLDIRD. Comparison with simultaneous standard 12-lead ECG proved that Laplacian estimates at CMV1 outperformed all the limb and chest standard leads in the contrast to study P-waves. Clinical recordings with CRE at this position could allow more detailed observation of atrial activity and facilitate the diagnosis of associated pathologies. Furthermore, such recordings would not require additional electrodes on limbs and could be performed wirelessly, so it should also be suitable for ambulatory monitoring, for example, using cardiac Holter monitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrocardiography; biopotentials; measurement; wearable sensors; concentric ring electrodes; Laplacian; estimation electrocardiography; biopotentials; measurement; wearable sensors; concentric ring electrodes; Laplacian; estimation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garcia-Casado, J.; Ye-Lin, Y.; Prats-Boluda, G.; Makeyev, O. Evaluation of Bipolar, Tripolar, and Quadripolar Laplacian Estimates of Electrocardiogram via Concentric Ring Electrodes. Sensors 2019, 19, 3780. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173780

AMA Style

Garcia-Casado J, Ye-Lin Y, Prats-Boluda G, Makeyev O. Evaluation of Bipolar, Tripolar, and Quadripolar Laplacian Estimates of Electrocardiogram via Concentric Ring Electrodes. Sensors. 2019; 19(17):3780. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173780

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garcia-Casado, Javier; Ye-Lin, Yiyao; Prats-Boluda, Gema; Makeyev, Oleksandr. 2019. "Evaluation of Bipolar, Tripolar, and Quadripolar Laplacian Estimates of Electrocardiogram via Concentric Ring Electrodes" Sensors 19, no. 17: 3780. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173780

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