In this paper, the development of an eye-tracking-based human–computer interface for real-time applications is presented. To identify the most appropriate pupil detection algorithm for the proposed interface, we analyzed the performance of eight algorithms, six of which we developed based on the most representative pupil center detection techniques. The accuracy of each algorithm was evaluated for different eye images from four representative databases and for video eye images using a new testing protocol for a scene image. For all video recordings, we determined the detection rate within a circular target 50-pixel area placed in different positions in the scene image, cursor controllability and stability on the user screen, and running time. The experimental results for a set of 30 subjects show a detection rate over 84% at 50 pixels for all proposed algorithms, and the best result (91.39%) was obtained with the circular Hough transform approach. Finally, this algorithm was implemented in the proposed interface to develop an eye typing application based on a virtual keyboard. The mean typing speed of the subjects who tested the system was higher than 20 characters per minute.
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