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Development of Fast E-nose System for Early-Stage Diagnosis of Aphid-Stressed Tomato Plants

1
Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University/Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691-4096, USA
2
Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University/Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691-4096, USA
3
United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) Application Technology Research Unit, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691-4096, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3480; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163480
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

An electronic nose (E-nose) system equipped with a sensitive sensor array was developed for fast diagnosis of aphid infestation on greenhouse tomato plants at early stages. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by tomato plants with and without aphid attacks were detected using both the developed E-nose system and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Sensor performance, with fast sensor responses and high sensitivity, were observed using the E-nose system. A principle component analysis (PCA) indicated accurate diagnosis of aphid-stressed plants compared to healthy ones, with the first two PCs accounting for 86.7% of the classification. The changes in VOCs profiles of the healthy and infested tomato plants were quantitatively determined by GC-MS. Results indicated that a group of new VOCs biomarkers (linalool, carveol, and nonane (2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl-)) played a role in providing information on the infestation on the tomato plants. More importantly, the variation in the concentration of sesquiterpene VOCs (e.g., caryophyllene) and new terpene alcohol compounds was closely associated with the sensor responses during E-nose testing, which verified the reliability and accuracy of the developed E-nose system. Tomato plants growing in spring had similar VOCs profiles as those of winter plants, except several terpenes released from spring plants that had a slightly higher intensity. View Full-Text
Keywords: aphid; electronic nose; sensors; tomato plant; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); biomarkers aphid; electronic nose; sensors; tomato plant; volatile organic compounds (VOCs); biomarkers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cui, S.; Inocente, E.A.A.; Acosta, N.; Keener, H.M.; Zhu, H.; Ling, P.P. Development of Fast E-nose System for Early-Stage Diagnosis of Aphid-Stressed Tomato Plants. Sensors 2019, 19, 3480.

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