Machine-Learning-Based Detection of Craving for Gaming Using Multimodal Physiological Signals: Validation of Test-Retest Reliability for Practical Use
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Center for Bionics, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(16), 3475; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19163475
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodal Data Fusion and Machine-Learning for Healthcare)
Internet gaming disorder in adolescents and young adults has become an increasing public concern because of its high prevalence rate and potential risk of alteration of brain functions and organizations. Cue exposure therapy is designed for reducing or maintaining craving, a core factor of relapse of addiction, and is extensively employed in addiction treatment. In a previous study, we proposed a machine-learning-based method to detect craving for gaming using multimodal physiological signals including photoplethysmogram, galvanic skin response, and electrooculogram. Our previous study demonstrated that a craving for gaming could be detected with a fairly high accuracy; however, as the feature vectors for the machine-learning-based detection of the craving of a user were selected based on the physiological data of the user that were recorded on the same day, the effectiveness of the reuse of the machine learning model constructed during the previous experiments, without any further calibration sessions, was still questionable. This “high test-retest reliability” characteristic is of importance for the practical use of the craving detection system because the system needs to be repeatedly applied to the treatment processes as a tool to monitor the efficacy of the treatment. We presented short video clips of three addictive games to nine participants, during which various physiological signals were recorded. This experiment was repeated with different video clips on three different days. Initially, we investigated the test-retest reliability of 14 features used in a craving detection system by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient. Then, we classified whether each participant experienced a craving for gaming in the third experiment using various classifiers—the support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors (kNN), centroid displacement-based kNN, linear discriminant analysis, and random forest—trained with the physiological signals recorded during the first or second experiment. Consequently, the craving/non-craving states in the third experiment were classified with an accuracy that was comparable to that achieved using the data of the same day; thus, demonstrating a high test-retest reliability and the practicality of our craving detection method. In addition, the classification performance was further enhanced by using both datasets of the first and second experiments to train the classifiers, suggesting that an individually customized game craving detection system with high accuracy can be implemented by accumulating datasets recorded on different days under different experimental conditions.