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Open AccessArticle

Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Using Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Mach–Zehnder Interferometer

1
Multi-Scale Additive Manufacturing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L3G1, Canada
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W2Y2, Canada
3
School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3357; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153357
Received: 10 July 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
Monitoring of greenhouse gases is essential to understand the present state and predict the future behavior of greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the greenhouse gas of most immediate concern, because of its high atmospheric concentration and long lifetime. A fiber-optic Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and demonstrated for the laboratory-scale monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration. The interferometric sensor was constructed using a small stub of hollow-core photonic crystal fiber between a lead-in and lead-out standard single mode fiber, with air-gaps at both interfaces. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the sensor shows the sensitivity of 4.3 pm/% CO2. The device was packaged to demonstrate the laboratory-scale leakage detection and measurement of CO2 concentration in both subsurface and aqueous environments. The experimental study of this work reveals the great potential of the fiber-optic approach for environmental monitoring of CO2. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon dioxide gas; fiber-optic sensor; Mach–Zehnder interferometer; photonic crystal fiber carbon dioxide gas; fiber-optic sensor; Mach–Zehnder interferometer; photonic crystal fiber
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, F.; Ahsani, V.; Nazeri, K.; Marzband, E.; Bradley, C.; Toyserkani, E.; Jun, M.B.G. Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Using Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Mach–Zehnder Interferometer. Sensors 2019, 19, 3357.

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