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Open AccessTechnical Note

Quantifying the Impact of Linear Regression Model in Deriving Bio-Optical Relationships: The Implications on Ocean Carbon Estimations

1
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, LOV, F-06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
2
Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), 00044 Frascati, Italy
3
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut de la Mer de Villefranche, IMEV, F-06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
4
Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 3032; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19133032
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour: Theory and Applications)
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Abstract

Linear regression is widely used in applied sciences and, in particular, in satellite optical oceanography, to relate dependent to independent variables. It is often adopted to establish empirical algorithms based on a finite set of measurements, which are later applied to observations on a larger scale from platforms such as autonomous profiling floats equipped with optical instruments (e.g., Biogeochemical Argo floats; BGC-Argo floats) and satellite ocean colour sensors (e.g., SeaWiFS, VIIRS, OLCI). However, different methods can be applied to a given pair of variables to determine the coefficients of the linear equation fitting the data, which are therefore not unique. In this work, we quantify the impact of the choice of “regression method” (i.e., either type-I or type-II) to derive bio-optical relationships, both from theoretical perspectives and by using specific examples. We have applied usual regression methods to an in situ data set of particulate organic carbon (POC), total chlorophyll-a (TChla), optical particulate backscattering coefficient (bbp), and 19 years of monthly TChla and bbp ocean colour data. Results of the regression analysis have been used to calculate phytoplankton carbon biomass (Cphyto) and POC from: i) BGC-Argo float observations; ii) oceanographic cruises, and iii) satellite data. These applications enable highlighting the differences in Cphyto and POC estimates relative to the choice of the method. An analysis of the statistical properties of the dataset and a detailed description of the hypothesis of the work drive the selection of the linear regression method. View Full-Text
Keywords: linear regression methods; bio-optical properties; BGC-Argo; satellite oceanography linear regression methods; bio-optical properties; BGC-Argo; satellite oceanography
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Bellacicco, M.; Vellucci, V.; Scardi, M.; Barbieux, M.; Marullo, S.; D’Ortenzio, F. Quantifying the Impact of Linear Regression Model in Deriving Bio-Optical Relationships: The Implications on Ocean Carbon Estimations. Sensors 2019, 19, 3032.

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