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Open AccessArticle

Application of the Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors for Monitoring Non-Competitive Inhibition of Enzyme Activity by Heavy Metals

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Purkynova 123, CZ-612 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic
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Czech Republic CEITEC MU, Nanobiotechnol Group, Kamenice 5, CZ-62 500 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2939; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132939
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 3 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
The inhibition effect of the selected heavy metals (Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Hg2+) on glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme from Aspergillus niger (EC 1.1.3.4.) was studied using a new amperometric biosensor with an electrochemical transducer based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) covered with a thin layer of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) incorporated with ruthenium(IV) oxide as a redox mediator. Direct adsorption of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and subsequent covering with Nafion® layer was used for immobilization of Gox. The analytical figures of merit of the developed glucose (Glc) biosensor are sufficient for determination of Glc in body fluids in clinical analysis. From all tested heavy metals, mercury(II) has the highest inhibition effect. However, it is necessary to remember that cadmium and silver ions also significantly inhibit the catalytic activity of Gox. Therefore, the development of Gox biosensors for selective indirect determination of each heavy metal still represents a challenge in the field of bioelectroanalysis. It can be concluded that amperometric biosensors, differing in the utilized enzyme, could find their application in the toxicity studies of various poisons. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose oxidase; heavy metals; amperometric biosensor; non-competitive inhibition glucose oxidase; heavy metals; amperometric biosensor; non-competitive inhibition
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Ashrafi, A.M.; Sýs, M.; Sedláčková, E.; Shaaban Farag, A.; Adam, V.; Přibyl, J.; Richtera, L. Application of the Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors for Monitoring Non-Competitive Inhibition of Enzyme Activity by Heavy Metals. Sensors 2019, 19, 2939.

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