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3D Tdoa Problem Solution with Four Receiving Nodes

Department of Mechanical, IT and Aerospace Engineering, Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain
Positioning Department, Drotium, Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2892;
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
PDF [2005 KB, uploaded 29 June 2019]


Time difference of arrival (TDOA) positioning methods have experienced growing importance over the last few years due to their multiple applications in local positioning systems (LPSs). While five sensors are needed to determine an unequivocal three-dimensional position, systems with four nodes present two different solutions that cannot be discarded according to mathematical standards. In this paper, a new methodology to solve the 3D TDOA problems in a sensor network with four beacons is proposed. A confidence interval, which is defined in this paper as a sphere, is defined to use positioning algorithms with four different nodes. It is proven that the separation between solutions in the four-beacon TDOA problem allows the transformation of the problem into an analogous one in which more receivers are implied due to the geometric properties of the intersection of hyperboloids. The achievement of the distance between solutions needs the application of genetic algorithms in order to find an optimized sensor distribution. Results show that positioning algorithms can be used 96.7% of the time with total security in cases where vehicles travel at less than 25 m/s. View Full-Text
Keywords: TDOA; sensor networks; hyperboloids; node distribution; genetic algorithms TDOA; sensor networks; hyperboloids; node distribution; genetic algorithms

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Díez-González, J.; Álvarez, R.; Sánchez-González, L.; Fernández-Robles, L.; Pérez, H.; Castejón-Limas, M. 3D Tdoa Problem Solution with Four Receiving Nodes. Sensors 2019, 19, 2892.

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