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Article

An Indoor Positioning Approach Based on Fusion of Cameras and Infrared Sensors

1
Electronics Department, Polytechnic School, University of Alcalá, 28871 Madrid, Spain
2
Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry, 8093 Zurich ETH Zürich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2019, 19(11), 2519; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112519
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
A method for infrared and cameras sensor fusion, applied to indoor positioning in intelligent spaces, is proposed in this work. The fused position is obtained with a maximum likelihood estimator from infrared and camera independent observations. Specific models are proposed for variance propagation from infrared and camera observations (phase shifts and image respectively) to their respective position estimates and to the final fused estimation. Model simulations are compared with real measurements in a setup designed to validate the system. The difference between theoretical prediction and real measurements is between 0.4 cm (fusion) and 2.5 cm (camera), within a 95% confidence margin. The positioning precision is in the cm level (sub-cm level can be achieved at most tested positions) in a 4 × 3 m locating cell with 5 infrared detectors on the ceiling and one single camera, at distances from target up to 5 m and 7 m respectively. Due to the low cost system design and the results observed, the system is expected to be feasible and scalable to large real spaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: infrared sensors; cameras; indoor positioning; sensor fusion infrared sensors; cameras; indoor positioning; sensor fusion
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    Doi: 10.20944/preprints201905.0343.v1
MDPI and ACS Style

Martín-Gorostiza, E.; García-Garrido, M.A.; Pizarro, D.; Salido-Monzú, D.; Torres, P. An Indoor Positioning Approach Based on Fusion of Cameras and Infrared Sensors. Sensors 2019, 19, 2519. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112519

AMA Style

Martín-Gorostiza E, García-Garrido MA, Pizarro D, Salido-Monzú D, Torres P. An Indoor Positioning Approach Based on Fusion of Cameras and Infrared Sensors. Sensors. 2019; 19(11):2519. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112519

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto, Miguel A. García-Garrido, Daniel Pizarro, David Salido-Monzú, and Patricia Torres. 2019. "An Indoor Positioning Approach Based on Fusion of Cameras and Infrared Sensors" Sensors 19, no. 11: 2519. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112519

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