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Open AccessArticle

A Clinically Evaluated Interferometric Continuous-Wave Radar System for the Contactless Measurement of Human Vital Parameters

1
Institute for Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstraße 9, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
2
Chair for Electronics and Sensors Systems, Brandenburg University of Technology, 03046 Cottbus, Germany
3
Department of Palliative Medicine, Medical Faculty, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2019, 19(11), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112492
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Portable Biosensing Systems for Point-of-Care Diagnostic Applications)
Vital parameters are key indicators for the assessment of health. Conventional methods rely on direct contact with the patients’ skin and can hence cause discomfort and reduce autonomy. This article presents a bistatic 24 GHz radar system based on an interferometric six-port architecture and features a precision of 1 µm in distance measurements. Placed at a distance of 40 cm in front of the human chest, it detects vibrations containing respiratory movements, pulse waves and heart sounds. For the extraction of the respiration rate, time-domain approaches like autocorrelation, peaksearch and zero crossing rate are compared to the Fourier transform, while template matching and a hidden semi-Markov model are utilized for the detection of the heart rate from sphygmograms and heart sounds. A medical study with 30 healthy volunteers was conducted to collect 5.5 h of data, where impedance cardiogram and electrocardiogram were used as gold standard for synchronously recording respiration and heart rate, respectively. A low root mean square error for the breathing rate (0.828 BrPM) and a high overall F1 score for heartbeat detection (93.14%) could be achieved using the proposed radar system and signal processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: continuous wave radar; remote sensing; six-port interferometry; vital parameter measurement continuous wave radar; remote sensing; six-port interferometry; vital parameter measurement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Michler, F.; Shi, K.; Schellenberger, S.; Steigleder, T.; Malessa, A.; Hameyer, L.; Neumann, N.; Lurz, F.; Ostgathe, C.; Weigel, R.; Koelpin, A. A Clinically Evaluated Interferometric Continuous-Wave Radar System for the Contactless Measurement of Human Vital Parameters. Sensors 2019, 19, 2492. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112492

AMA Style

Michler F, Shi K, Schellenberger S, Steigleder T, Malessa A, Hameyer L, Neumann N, Lurz F, Ostgathe C, Weigel R, Koelpin A. A Clinically Evaluated Interferometric Continuous-Wave Radar System for the Contactless Measurement of Human Vital Parameters. Sensors. 2019; 19(11):2492. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112492

Chicago/Turabian Style

Michler, Fabian; Shi, Kilin; Schellenberger, Sven; Steigleder, Tobias; Malessa, Anke; Hameyer, Laura; Neumann, Nina; Lurz, Fabian; Ostgathe, Christoph; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander. 2019. "A Clinically Evaluated Interferometric Continuous-Wave Radar System for the Contactless Measurement of Human Vital Parameters" Sensors 19, no. 11: 2492. https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112492

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