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Sensors 2019, 19(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010190

Removal of Gross Artifacts of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation in Simultaneous EEG Monitoring

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
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This paper is an extended version of our conference paper: Kohli, S.; Casson, A.J. Removal of Transcranial a.c. Current Stimulation artifact from simultaneous EEG recordings by superposition of moving averages. In Proceedings of the 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Milano, Italy, 25–29 August 2015.
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Intelligent Sensors)
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Abstract

Transcranial electrical stimulation is a widely used non-invasive brain stimulation approach. To date, EEG has been used to evaluate the effect of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS), but most studies have been limited to exploring changes in EEG before and after stimulation due to the presence of stimulation artifacts in the EEG data. This paper presents two different algorithms for removing the gross tACS artifact from simultaneous EEG recordings. These give different trade-offs in removal performance, in the amount of data required, and in their suitability for closed loop systems. Superposition of Moving Averages and Adaptive Filtering techniques are investigated, with significant emphasis on verification. We present head phantom testing results for controlled analysis, together with on-person EEG recordings in the time domain, frequency domain, and Event Related Potential (ERP) domain. The results show that EEG during tACS can be recovered free of large scale stimulation artifacts. Previous studies have not quantified the performance of the tACS artifact removal procedures, instead focusing on the removal of second order artifacts such as respiration related oscillations. We focus on the unresolved challenge of removing the first order stimulation artifact, presented with a new multi-stage validation strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: EEG; tACS; artifact removal; adaptive filter EEG; tACS; artifact removal; adaptive filter
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Kohli, S.; Casson, A.J. Removal of Gross Artifacts of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation in Simultaneous EEG Monitoring. Sensors 2019, 19, 190.

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