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Open AccessArticle

PZT/PZT and PZT/BiT Composite Piezo-Sensors in Aerospace SHM Applications: Photochemical Metal Organic + Infiltration Deposition and Characterization

1
Project neuroArm, Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6, Canada
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
3
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441, Iran
4
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010013
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensors Applications in Aerospace)
The composition of fine-ground lead zirconate-titanate powder Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3, suspended in PZT and bismuth titanate (BiT) solutions, is deposited on the curved surface of IN718 and IN738 nickel-based supper alloy substrates up to 100 µm thickness. Photochemical metal organic and infiltration techniques are implemented to produce smooth, semi-dense, and crack-free random orientated thick piezoelectric films as piezo-sensors, free of any dopants or thickening polymers. Every single layer of the deposited films is heated at 200 °C with 10 wt.% excess PbO, irradiated by ultraviolet lamp (365 nm, 6 watt) for 10 min, pyrolyzed at 400 °C, and subsequently annealed at 700 °C for one hour. This process is repeated successively until reaching the desired thickness. Au and Pt thin films are deposited as the bottom and top electrodes using evaporation and sputtering methods, respectively. PZT/PZT and PZT/BiT composite films are then characterized and compared to similar PZT and BiT thick films deposited on the similar substrates. The effect of the composition and deposition process is also investigated on the crystalline phase development and microstructure morphology as well as the dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of piezo-films. The maximum remnant polarization of Pr = 22.37 ± 0.01, 30.01 ± 0.01 µC/cm2, the permittivity of εr = 298 ± 3, 566 ± 5, and piezoelectric charge coefficient of d33 = 126, 148 m/V were measured versus the minimum coercive field of Ec = 50, 20 kV/cm for the PZT/PZT and PZT/BiT thick films, respectively. The thick film piezo-sensors are developed to be potentially used at frequency bandwidth of 1–5 MHz for rotary structural health monitoring and also in other industrial or medical applications as a transceiver. View Full-Text
Keywords: composite; piezoelectric sensor; thick film; sol-gel PMOD deposition; infiltration; PZT/PZT; PZT/BiT; characterization; structural health monitoring; aerospace structure composite; piezoelectric sensor; thick film; sol-gel PMOD deposition; infiltration; PZT/PZT; PZT/BiT; characterization; structural health monitoring; aerospace structure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoshyarmanesh, H.; Ebrahimi, N.; Jafari, A.; Hoshyarmanesh, P.; Kim, M.; Park, H.-H. PZT/PZT and PZT/BiT Composite Piezo-Sensors in Aerospace SHM Applications: Photochemical Metal Organic + Infiltration Deposition and Characterization. Sensors 2019, 19, 13.

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