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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2995; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092995

Face Detection in Nighttime Images Using Visible-Light Camera Sensors with Two-Step Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network

Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University, 30 Pil-dong-ro 1-gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 04620, Korea
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Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning-Based Image Sensors)
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Abstract

Conventional nighttime face detection studies mostly use near-infrared (NIR) light cameras or thermal cameras, which are robust to environmental illumination variation and low illumination. However, for the NIR camera, it is difficult to adjust the intensity and angle of the additional NIR illuminator according to its distance from an object. As for the thermal camera, it is expensive to use as a surveillance camera. For these reasons, we propose a nighttime face detection method based on deep learning using a single visible-light camera. In a long-distance night image, it is difficult to detect faces directly from the entire image due to noise and image blur. Therefore, we propose Two-Step Faster region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) based on the image preprocessed by histogram equalization (HE). As a two-step scheme, our method sequentially performs the detectors of body and face areas, and locates the face inside a limited body area. By using our two-step method, the processing time by Faster R-CNN can be reduced while maintaining the accuracy of face detection by Faster R-CNN. Using a self-constructed database called Dongguk Nighttime Face Detection database (DNFD-DB1) and an open database of Fudan University, we proved that the proposed method performs better compared to other existing face detectors. In addition, the proposed Two-Step Faster R-CNN outperformed single Faster R-CNN and our method with HE showed higher accuracies than those without our preprocessing in nighttime face detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: surveillance camera; visible-light camera; deep learning; nighttime face detection surveillance camera; visible-light camera; deep learning; nighttime face detection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Cho, S.W.; Baek, N.R.; Kim, M.C.; Koo, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Park, K.R. Face Detection in Nighttime Images Using Visible-Light Camera Sensors with Two-Step Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Network. Sensors 2018, 18, 2995.

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