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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2929; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092929

Ship Classification in High-Resolution SAR Images Using Deep Learning of Small Datasets

1,2
,
1,2,* and 1,*
1
Key Laboratory of Digital Earth Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China
2
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies)
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Abstract

With the capability to automatically learn discriminative features, deep learning has experienced great success in natural images but has rarely been explored for ship classification in high-resolution SAR images due to the training bottleneck caused by the small datasets. In this paper, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are applied to ship classification by using SAR images with the small datasets. First, ship chips are constructed from high-resolution SAR images and split into training and validation datasets. Second, a ship classification model is constructed based on very deep convolutional networks (VGG). Then, VGG is pretrained via ImageNet, and fine tuning is utilized to train our model. Six scenes of COSMO-SkyMed images are used to evaluate our proposed model with regard to the classification accuracy. The experimental results reveal that (1) our proposed ship classification model trained by fine tuning achieves more than 95% average classification accuracy, even with 5-cross validation; (2) compared with other models, the ship classification model based on VGG16 achieves at least 2% higher accuracies for classification. These experimental results reveal the effectiveness of our proposed method. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-resolution SAR images; ship classification; convolutional neural networks; fine tuning; transfer learning; small datasets high-resolution SAR images; ship classification; convolutional neural networks; fine tuning; transfer learning; small datasets
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Wang, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, H. Ship Classification in High-Resolution SAR Images Using Deep Learning of Small Datasets. Sensors 2018, 18, 2929.

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