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Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072243

A Miniature Binocular Endoscope with Local Feature Matching and Stereo Matching for 3D Measurement and 3D Reconstruction

1
,
1,2,* and 1
1
Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, SEIEE, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2
Shanghai Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Diagnosis and Treatment Instrument, Shanghai 200240, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Depth Sensors and 3D Vision)
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Abstract

As the traditional single camera endoscope can only provide clear images without 3D measurement and 3D reconstruction, a miniature binocular endoscope based on the principle of binocular stereoscopic vision to implement 3D measurement and 3D reconstruction in tight and restricted spaces is presented. In order to realize the exact matching of points of interest in the left and right images, a novel construction method of the weighted orthogonal-symmetric local binary pattern (WOS-LBP) descriptor is presented. Then a stereo matching algorithm based on Gaussian-weighted AD-Census transform and improved cross-based adaptive regions is studied to realize 3D reconstruction for real scenes. In the algorithm, we adjust determination criterions of adaptive regions for edge and discontinuous areas in particular and as well extract mismatched pixels caused by occlusion through image entropy and region-growing algorithm. This paper develops a binocular endoscope with an external diameter of 3.17 mm and the above algorithms are applied in it. The endoscope contains two CMOS cameras and four fiber optics for illumination. Three conclusions are drawn from experiments: (1) the proposed descriptor has good rotation invariance, distinctiveness and robustness to light change as well as noises; (2) the proposed stereo matching algorithm has a mean relative error of 8.48% for Middlebury standard pairs of images and compared with several classical stereo matching algorithms, our algorithm performs better in edge and discontinuous areas; (3) the mean relative error of length measurement is 3.22%, and the endoscope can be utilized to measure and reconstruct real scenes effectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: endoscope; binocular stereoscopic vision; local feature descriptor; stereo matching; 3D measurement; 3D reconstruction endoscope; binocular stereoscopic vision; local feature descriptor; stereo matching; 3D measurement; 3D reconstruction
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Wang, D.; Liu, H.; Cheng, X. A Miniature Binocular Endoscope with Local Feature Matching and Stereo Matching for 3D Measurement and 3D Reconstruction. Sensors 2018, 18, 2243.

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