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Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072220

A Deep CNN-LSTM Model for Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Forecasting in Smart Cities

1
School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, China
2
Computer and Intelligent Robot Program for Bachelor Degree, National Pingtung University, Pingtung 90004, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract

In modern society, air pollution is an important topic as this pollution exerts a critically bad influence on human health and the environment. Among air pollutants, Particulate Matter (PM2.5) consists of suspended particles with a diameter equal to or less than 2.5 μm. Sources of PM2.5 can be coal-fired power generation, smoke, or dusts. These suspended particles in the air can damage the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of the human body, which may further lead to other diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. To monitor and estimate the PM2.5 concentration, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) are combined and applied to the PM2.5 forecasting system. To compare the overall performance of each algorithm, four measurement indexes, Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) Pearson correlation coefficient and Index of Agreement (IA) are applied to the experiments in this paper. Compared with other machine learning methods, the experimental results showed that the forecasting accuracy of the proposed CNN-LSTM model (APNet) is verified to be the highest in this paper. For the CNN-LSTM model, its feasibility and practicability to forecast the PM2.5 concentration are also verified in this paper. The main contribution of this paper is to develop a deep neural network model that integrates the CNN and LSTM architectures, and through historical data such as cumulated hours of rain, cumulated wind speed and PM2.5 concentration. In the future, this study can also be applied to the prevention and control of PM2.5. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5 forecasting; deep learning; big data analytics; CNN-LSTM model PM2.5 forecasting; deep learning; big data analytics; CNN-LSTM model
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Huang, C.-J.; Kuo, P.-H. A Deep CNN-LSTM Model for Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Forecasting in Smart Cities. Sensors 2018, 18, 2220.

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