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Open AccessArticle

Analysis of Wide-Lane Ambiguities Derived from Geometry-Free and Geometry-Based Precise Point Positioning Models and Their Implication for Orbit and Clock Quality

by Gang Chen 1, Sijing Liu 1,2,* and Qile Zhao 3,*
1
College of Maritime Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
3
GNSS Research Center, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1760; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061760
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors, Control, and Telemetry)
Orbit and clock products are used in real-time global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) precise point positioning (PPP) without knowing their quality. This study develops a new approach to detect orbit and clock errors through comparing geometry-free and geometry-based wide-lane ambiguities in a PPP model. The reparameterization and estimation procedures of the geometry-free and geometry-based ambiguities are described in detail. The effects of orbit and clock errors on ambiguities are given in analytical expressions. The numerical similarity and differences of geometry-free and geometry-based wide-lane ambiguities are analyzed using different orbit and clock products. Furthermore, two types of typical errors in orbit and clock are simulated and their effects on wide-lane ambiguities are numerically produced and analyzed. The contribution discloses that the geometry-free and geometry-based wide-lane ambiguities are equivalent in terms of their formal errors. Although they are very close in terms of their estimates when the used orbit and clock for geometry-based ambiguities are precise enough, they are not the same, in particular, in the case that the used orbit and clock, as a combination, contain significant errors. It is discovered that the discrepancies of geometry-free and geometry-based wide-lane ambiguities coincide with the actual time-variant errors in the used orbit and clock at the line-of-sight direction. This provides a quality index for real-time users to detect the errors in real-time orbit and clock products, which potentially improves the accuracy of positioning. View Full-Text
Keywords: geometry-free; geometry-based; wide-lane ambiguity; orbit and clock residual error geometry-free; geometry-based; wide-lane ambiguity; orbit and clock residual error
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Chen, G.; Liu, S.; Zhao, Q. Analysis of Wide-Lane Ambiguities Derived from Geometry-Free and Geometry-Based Precise Point Positioning Models and Their Implication for Orbit and Clock Quality. Sensors 2018, 18, 1760.

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